The coronavirus (CoV) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first isolated in December 2019, in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China.
Mycoplasmas are widely distributed in nature. Various species of these small prokaryotic organisms cause economically important infections in domestic animals (like mammals and birds), and infect also reptiles, as well as man.
The Morbillivirus genus (family Paramyxoviridae) includes important viral RNA pathogens of humans and animals including measles virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus (globally eradicated in 2011), peste des petits ruminants viruses and viruses affecting marine mammals (Nambulli et al., 2016).
Filarial worms (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) are vector-borne nematodes infecting mainly dogs but also cats, ferrets, wild carnivores (fox, jackal, coyote, wolf, raccoons, wild felids, sea lion, black bear) and humans (McCall et al., 2008; Simón et al., 2012;
Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi is a common obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is increasingly recognised as a pathogen of cats and other mammalian species.
Objectives: to review the literature on E. cuniculi in cats and provide recommendations for feline clinical conditions in which E.
The haemoplasmas are haemotropic mycoplasmas, bacteria that parasitize red blood cells and can induce haemolytic anaemia. They are currently classified within the genus Mycoplasma in the Mycoplasmataceae family of bacteria.
Obligate intracellular Gram negative coccoid organisms of the Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia genera are vector-borne members of the Rickettsiales order infecting humans and a wide variety of domestic and wild animals worldwide (Allison and Little, 2013).
Hepatozoonosis of domestic cats has been reported in several countries, mainly as a subclinical infection.
The infection has been described mostly in the same areas where canine infection is present and, in recent years, different species Hepatozoon felis and Hepatozoon silvestris, have been identified by molecular techniques.
The vector for
This beta-haemolytic Lancefield group G gram-positive bacterium is considered part of the commensal mucosal flora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and perianal region in cats. The infection seems to be sporadic in single-cat households, especially in older cats (Greene and Prescott, 2012).
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis antigenic group. It is an enveloped virus containing a single molecule of linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA.
Borna disease virus (BoDV)-1 historically affects horses and sheep (for review see Ludwig and Bode, 2000). The disease was first described in 1855 in horses which became severely sick, near the German town of Borna (cited in Lundgren et al., 1995).
Cytauxzoon species are emerging apicomplexan haemoparasites (order Piroplasmida, family Theileriidae) of wild and domestic cats, transmitted by ticks. Cytauxzoon felis is the main species of felids found in the Americas and China while in the Old World Cytauxzoon manul and closely related species are reported.
Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of dogs and cats in Europe which have received growing attention by researchers in recent years. Significant progress has been made, mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of infection.
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is the best-known feline lungworm and is regarded as the most prevalent
Cowpox virus has a wide host spectrum including man (zoonosis!) and occurs predominantly in small rodents.
Cats with rodent contact are at risk to become infected.
Skin lesions are predominantly found on the head and paws.
Giardia is a protozoal parasite that infects the small intestine of cats and can cause diarrhoea. The biotypes considered as feline specific biotypes do not appear to infect humans, but zoonotic biotypes (isolated from human cases) are frequently found in cats.
Mycobacteria are intracellular, acid-fast, slow-growing bacilliform Gram-positive aerobic bacteria, highly resistant to environmental conditions (Greene and Gunn-Moore, 2006; Gunn-Moore, 2010). Mycobacterial taxonomy is complex, and many species can infect cats and cause different clinical presentations.
Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan organism that can cause predominantly large intestinal diarrhoea in cats. It is specific to cats, distinct from other Tritrichomonas species and not considered to be zoonotic. Infection is most common in young cats from multicat households, particularly pedigree breeding catteries.
Toxoplasma gondii infection is common in cats, but the clinical picture is rare. Up to 50% of cats, especially free-roaming ones, have antibodies indicating infection and the presence of cystic stages. Clinical signs usually appear when cats become immunosuppressed – in these situations, cystic stages can be reactivated.
Phaeohyphomycoses are rare opportunistic fungal infections caused by numerous genera of fungal moulds that characteristically produce melanin-pigmented ”dematiaceous (dark-coloured) hyphal elements in tissues an in culture (Figs.
Rare systemic fungal infections in Europe are blastomycosis (caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis), coccidioidomycosis (caused by Coccidioides immitis) and histoplasmosis (caused by Histoplasma capsulatum).