GUIDELINE for Good vaccination practices

“To vaccinate as many cats as possible, but the individual cat only as often as necessary” is the motto, that has been established worldwide and is, and will remain, the philosophy of ABCD.
Although an annual vaccination schedule was adopted initially in cats, triennial vaccination (i.e.

GUIDELINE for SARS-Coronavirus (CoV)-2 and cats

The coronavirus (CoV) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first isolated in December 2019, in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China.

GUIDELINE for Vaccination and antibody titre testing

Vaccination guidelines, as published by the ABCD, aim to support the practitioner in making an informed decision about a vaccination schedule for an individual animal and/or group of animals.

GUIDELINE for Feline respiratory Mycoplasma infections

Mycoplasmas are widely distributed in nature. Various species of these small prokaryotic organisms cause economically important infections in domestic animals (like mammals and birds), and infect also reptiles, as well as man.

GUIDELINE for Feline Morbillivirus infection

The Morbillivirus genus (family Paramyxoviridae) includes important viral RNA pathogens of humans and animals including measles virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), rinderpest virus (globally eradicated in 2011), peste des petits ruminants viruses and viruses affecting marine mammals (Nambulli et al., 2016).

GUIDELINE for Adverse reactions to vaccination

Vaccination is undoubtedly one of the most effective measures for the prevention of infectious diseases. However, as with other biologicals, vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) may occur.

GUIDELINE for Dirofilarioses in Cats

Filarial worms (Spirurida,  Onchocercidae) are vector-borne nematodes infecting mainly dogs but also cats, ferrets, wild carnivores (fox, jackal, coyote, wolf, raccoons, wild felids, sea lion, black bear) and humans (McCall et al., 2008; Simón et al., 2012;

GUIDELINE for Encephalitozoon cuniculi in cats

Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi is a common obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is increasingly recognised as a pathogen of cats and other mammalian species.

Objectives: to review the literature on E. cuniculi in cats and provide recommendations for feline clinical conditions in which E.

GUIDELINE for Haemoplasmosis in Cats

The haemoplasmas are haemotropic mycoplasmas, bacteria that parasitize red blood cells and can induce haemolytic anaemia. They are currently classified within the genus Mycoplasma in the Mycoplasmataceae family of bacteria.

GUIDELINE for Maternally Derived Immunity and Vaccination

Cats have an endotheliochorial placenta that is a barrier for immunoglobulins, preventing their passage from the maternal serum into the fetal circulation.

GUIDELINE for Vaccination of Immunocompromised Cats

This guideline has the goal to help veterinarians in the decision making in how to vaccinate immunocompromised cats. So far, there are not much data available on vaccination of immunocompromised cats, and sometimes studies produce controversial results.

GUIDELINE for Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia infections

Obligate intracellular Gram negative coccoid organisms of the Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia genera are vector-borne members of the Rickettsiales order infecting humans and a wide variety of domestic and wild animals worldwide (Allison and Little, 2013).

GUIDELINE for Disinfectant choice in feline veterinary hospitals, shelters and cat households

Regardless of whether a pathogen is viral, bacterial, parasitic or fungal, or an emerging unknown, the mainstay of infectious disease prevention is hygiene, and the cornerstone of good hygiene is effective disinfection.

GUIDELINE for Streptococcal infections

This beta-haemolytic Lancefield group G gram-positive bacterium is considered part of the commensal mucosal flora of the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, genital organs and perianal region in cats. The infection seems to be sporadic in single-cat households, especially in older cats (Greene and Prescott, 2012).

GUIDELINE for Blood transfusion in cats

Blood transfusion in dogs and cats is more commonly done than in the past and fresh whole blood can be made available to clinicians because it is taken from in-house donor cats or “volunteer” feline blood donors.

GUIDELINE for Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma

In cats, invasive sarcomas (mostly fibrosarcomas), so called “feline injection-site sarcomas” (FISS), are the most serious adverse effects following vaccination. They develop at sites of vaccination or injection. They have characteristics that are distinct from those of fibrosarcomas in other areas and behave more aggressively.

GUIDELINE for Borna virus infection

Borna disease virus (BoDV)-1 historically affects horses and sheep (for review see Ludwig and Bode, 2000). The disease was first described in 1855 in horses which became severely sick, near the German town of Borna (cited in Lundgren et al., 1995).

GUIDELINE for West Nile virus infection

West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis antigenic group. It is an enveloped virus containing a single molecule of linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA.

GUIDELINE for Hepatozoonosis

Hepatozoonosis of domestic cats has been reported in several countries, mainly as a subclinical infection.

The infection has been described mostly in the same areas where canine infection is present and, in recent years, different species Hepatozoon felis and Hepatozoon silvestris, have been identified by molecular techniques.

The vector for

GUIDELINE for Lungworm disease

Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of dogs and cats in Europe which have received growing attention by researchers in recent years. Significant progress has been made, mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of infection.

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is the best-known feline lungworm and is regarded as the most prevalent