GUIDELINE for Toxoplasma gondii infection

Toxoplasma gondii infection is common in cats, but the clinical picture is rare. Up to 50% of cats, especially free-roaming ones, have antibodies indicating infection and the presence of cystic stages. Clinical signs usually appear when cats become immunosuppressed – in these situations, cystic stages can be reactivated.

GUIDELINE for Giardiasis

Giardia is a protozoal parasite that infects the small intestine of cats and can cause diarrhoea. The biotypes considered as feline specific biotypes do not appear to infect humans, but zoonotic biotypes (isolated from human cases) are frequently found in cats.

GUIDELINE for Tritrichomoniasis

Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan organism that can cause predominantly large intestinal diarrhoea in cats. It is specific to cats, distinct from other Tritrichomonas species and not considered to be zoonotic. Infection is most common in young cats from multicat households, particularly pedigree breeding catteries.

GUIDELINE for Cryptococcosis in Cats

Feline cryptococcosis is caused by basidiomycetous yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus belonging to the C. neoformans-C.

GUIDELINE for Aspergillosis

Aspergillosis is a sporadic mycosis that occurs worldwide in mammals and birds. Similar to the disease in humans, aspergillosis in cats can be classified by anatomic location, invasiveness, duration of infection, host immune status, pathology, and pathogenesis.

GUIDELINE for Feline viral papillomatosis

Papillomaviruses cause cutaneous lesions in man and several animal species, including cats (Munday, 2010). In each host different papillomavirus types exist, which is also true for cats (Munday, 2008).

GUIDELINE for Coxiellosis – Q fever in cats

Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative, obligate intracellular, small, pleomorphic bacterium belonging to the order Legionellales. This organism has a complicated life cycle with different morphological stadia. It may occur as a small-cell variant and a large-cell variant.

GUIDELINE for Leptospira spp. infection in cats

Leptospires are mobile, thin, filamentous bacteria of a size of 6.0-25.0 mm length and 0.1-0.2 mm width, that appear as fine spirals often with hook-shaped ends (Fig. 1) (Bharti et al., 2003; Adler and de la Pena Moctezuma, 2010).

GUIDELINE for Plague due to Yersinia pestis

The plague is currently endemic in many parts of the world and foci of plague occur in Asia, Africa and the Americas in semiarid areas where flea vectors are active all year round and rodent reservoirs are abundant (Valles et al., 2020).

Currently most of human cases occur in

GUIDELINE for Francisella tularensis infection

This bacterial species was discovered in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California, in 1911. Tularaemia is a potentially fatal zoonosis mostly found in the Northern hemisphere.

GUIDELINE for Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection

Capnocytophaga canimorsus and C. cynodegmi are part of the normal bacterial flora in the oral cavity of dogs and cats; C. canimorsus is more pathogenic and causes more severe infections in humans. 

GUIDELINE for Mycobacterioses in cats

Mycobacteria are intracellular, acid-fast, slow-growing bacilliform Gram-positive aerobic bacteria, highly resistant to environmental conditions (Greene and Gunn-Moore, 2006; Gunn-Moore, 2010). Mycobacterial taxonomy is complex, and many species can infect cats and cause different clinical presentations.

GUIDELINE for Dermatophytosis, ringworm in cats

In contrast to single-celled yeasts, dermatophytes (literally: “skin plants”) are complex fungi growing as hyphae and forming a mycelium. Almost 40 species belonging to the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton are considered as dermatophytes.

GUIDELINE for Feline Herpesvirus infection

Feline herpesvirus (FHV), the agent of feline viral rhinotracheitis, is distributed worldwide. The virus belongs to the order Herpesvirales, family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus.

GUIDELINE for Feline Panleukopenia

Key points

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and the closely related canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) can infect and cause severe disease in cats.
FPV is shed in high titers in the faeces and the very stable virions stay infectious in the environment for months.
FPV is very tolerant against many

GUIDELINE for Chlamydia felis

Chlamydia felis is a Gram-negative bacterium that is an obligate intracellular parasite of cats. Chlamydia felis does not survive outside of the host so close contact between cats is required for transmission, usually via ocular discharges. Chlamydiosis typically affects young cats under 9 months of age.

GUIDELINE for Influenza virus infections in cats

Influenza is a highly contagious, acute infection, usually of the upper respiratory tract, and has been detected worldwide in many vertebrate hosts (Krammer et al., 2018). Feline respiratory diseases caused by influenza viruses appear to be rather rare and usually self-limiting;

GUIDELINE for Feline rabies

Rabies is one of the oldest and most feared diseases of humans and animals – it was recognized in Egypt before 2300 BC and in ancient Greece, where it was well described by Aristotle.

GUIDELINE for Feline immunodeficiency virus

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the genus Lentivirus that is closely related to HIV; however, humans are not susceptible to the cat virus, which occurs in 5 subtypes (clades) worldwide.

GUIDELINE for Feline Leukaemia Virus Infection

Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), a gammaretrovirus of domestic cats, is a member of the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily of retroviruses. It contains a protein core with single-stranded RNA protected by an envelope.