ABCD cats & vets https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/ Resources for cat vets Wed, 03 Apr 2024 13:33:10 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=6.5.3 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/ABCD_logo_favicon.svg ABCD cats & vets https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/ 32 32 In memoriam: Hans Lutz https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/in-memoriam-hans-lutz/ Wed, 03 Apr 2024 12:00:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=7461 It is with great sadness that the ABCD announces the passing of one of its founding members, Hans Lutz (78). Hans was a renowned emeritus Veterinary Medicine Professor at University of Zurich, where he graduated in 1971.

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In memoriam: Hans Lutz

Published: 03/04/2024


It is with great sadness that the ABCD announces the passing of one of its founding members, Hans Lutz (78). Hans was a renowned emeritus Veterinary Medicine Professor at University of Zurich, where he graduated in 1971. After several years of bacteriology and mastitis research, clinical work and a postgraduate course in experimental biology and medicine, he worked for two years at the Institute of Pharmacology and Biochemistry (University of Zurich) before spending three years studying virology and immunology at the University of California Davis with Professor Niels C. Pedersen.
Upon his return to Switzerland, he became professor in clinical laboratory medicine, and was appointed director of the clinical laboratory at the Veterinary Faculty in Zurich in 1981, where he stayed until his retirement in 2011. He served as President of the Swiss National Centre for Retroviruses from 1995 until 2008. During this time, he obtained the specialist diploma for laboratory medical analysis from the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences.
His research focused on feline viral and especially retroviral infections, animal models for AIDS, feline immunology and vaccinology, tick-borne infections and clinical laboratory diagnostics in veterinary medicine. He was the author or co-author of over 350 papers in peer-reviewed journals, published several book chapters and reviews, was co-editor of the textbook “Diseases of the Cat” (together with his close friend Marian Horzinek) and was a popular guest lecturer and speaker at home and abroad. In 2001, he received the Science Award of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association and in 2022, he was admitted to the prestigious Academia Europaea.
He was not only a founding member of the ABCD, but also a member of the scientific advisory board to the Veterinary University in Vienna and a member of the German Academy of Natural Sciences Leopoldina. In his later years, he enthusiastically supported the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as their feline specialist.
But, apart from his many academic achievements and boundless scientific curiosity, Hans will be no doubt most remembered for his warm and engaging personality, his keen interest in the people and world around him, his generous support and friendship and above all his contagious laugh and wonderful anecdotes.
We will greatly miss him and our thoughts go out to Claudia, their children and grandchildren.

Diane Addie, Sándor Belák, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Herman Egberink, Tadeusz Frymus, Katrin Hartmann, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Margaret J. Hosie, Albert Lloret, Fulvio Marsilio, Karin Möstl, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Séverine Tasker, Etienne Thiry and Uwe Truyen.

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GUIDELINE for Staggering Disease https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/guideline-for-staggering-disease/ Fri, 09 Feb 2024 10:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=7206 [av_textblock content__locked='aviaTBaviaTBcontent__locked' textblock_styling_align='' textblock_styling_align__locked='aviaTBaviaTBtextblock_styling_align__locked' textblock_styling='' textblock_styling__locked='aviaTBaviaTBtextblock_styling__locked' textblock_styling_gap='' textblock_styling_mobile='' size='' size__locked='aviaTBaviaTBsize__locked' av-desktop-font-size='' av-medium-font-size='' av-small-font-size='' av-mini-font-size='' font_color='' font_color__locked='aviaTBaviaTBfont_color__locked' color='' av-desktop-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-desktop-hide__locked' av-medium-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-medium-hide__locked' av-small-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-small-hide__locked' av-mini-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-mini-hide__locked' id='' custom_class='' template_class='' template_class__locked='aviaTBaviaTBtemplate_class__locked' element_template='4595' one_element_template='' av_uid='av-2prnvo' sc_version='1.0' admin_preview_bg='']

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GUIDELINE for Staggering Disease

Published: 09/02/2024
Last updated:
Last reviewed:



These Guidelines were first published as Bornavirus Disease Guidelines by Hans Lutz et al. in Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17 (7), 2015, 614-616, and updated by Hans Lutz in 2017. This recent update (2024) has been compiled by Uwe Truyen with valuable input from Kaspar Matiasek, Institut für Tierpathologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.

Key points

  • Staggering disease is a rare central nervous syndrome in cats.
  • It is characterized by abnormal gait, ataxia progressing to paralysis, lower back pain and behavioural changes.
  • Pathological evidence of a disseminated lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalomyelitis with neuronotropism, in conjunction with clinical signs, are considered the most reliable diagnostic methods.
  • Formerly Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) was believed to be the cause of staggering disease, with shrews (Crocidura leucodon) as the reservoir host.
  • However, evidence now suggests that the recently described Rustrela virus (RusV) is the aetiological agent. Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, Apodemus flavicollis) likely act as reservoir hosts for Rustrela virus.
  • The mode of transmission is unknown, but might be through direct contact, or indirectly via the secretions of an infected animal.
  • Rustrela-like virus infections have also been described in various rodents, bats, large cats, a donkey, an otter, a coati, and a wallaby (Bennet et al., 2020; Pfaff et al., 2022; de la Roi et al., 2023).

Introduction

In the mid-1970s, staggering disease – a non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis – was described in cats in Western Sweden (cited in Cubitt and de la Torre, 1994 and Lundgren et al., 1995). Later, it was found that antibodies recognising Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) were common to these cases (Lundgren and Ludwig, 1993). Finally, in 1995, BoDV-1 was considered “confirmed” as the aetiological agent of staggering disease (Lundgren et al., 1995). According to current understanding these data most likely resemble laboratory artefacts.

The detection of cases of fatal encephalitis in humans in Bavaria caused by BoDV-1 and a closely related Bornavirus of squirrels indicated that these viruses are zoonotic (Schlottau et al., 2017; Niller et al., 2020).

Just recently, another virus, Rustrela virus (RusV), has been identified in historical and actual case material from 27 of 29 cats affected with staggering disease, and also in wood mice of matching areas. In this investigation, the agent has not been identified in control cats and other types of encephalitis. These findings strongly suggest an aetiological role for RusV in staggering disease of cats.

It is not known whether RusV can infect, or cause disease, in humans.

Aetiology of staggering disease

Although the aetiologic agent of staggering disease was long thought to be BoDV-1 because either the virus or antibodies against BoDV-1 could be detected in many clinical cases, there was no clear correlation between their detection and disease.

Later studies employing metagenomic analyses determined that another virus, namely RusV, was associated with feline staggering disease; RusV was identified in archival samples from 27 of 29 cats displaying staggering disease (i.e. non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis). RusV was detected in these cases and confirmed using various techniques that demonstrated the presence of either the viral genome or viral antigen. RusV was also detected frequently in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), which is consistent with the epidemiology of staggering disease, which is strongly associated with forest regions.

Agent properties of Rustrela virus (RusV)

RusV is an enveloped RNA virus (Rubivirus strelense), which has been classified as a member of the Matonaviridae family. It is named for its rubella virus-like genome and the Strelasund of the Baltic Sea in Germany (Bennet et al., 2020). It is closely related to rubella virus (RuV; Rubivirus rubella). RusV was first described in cases of lymphohistiocytic encephalitis in a free-ranging otter and a coati kept at a zoological garden in northern Germany (Pfaff et al., 2022). Interestingly, subclinically infected yellow-necked field mice (Apodemus flavicollis), without apparent encephalitis, were also detected and considered possible reservoir hosts of the virus.

Epidemiology and Transmission

In the comprehensive study published by Matiasek et al. (2023), RusV was detected in archival samples from 27 of 29 cats (93%) from Germany, Sweden and Austria with a history of clinical signs and histopathological findings indicative of staggering disease. All of the sampled cats were adults with outdoor access. The onset of disease occurred more often in winter and spring than in summer or autumn. Clinical signs included gait abnormalities, fever, behavioural changes, and depression. Most cats had to be euthanised within weeks after clinical presentation. Histological examination of brain and spinal cord revealed widespread, polio-predominant angiocentric lymphocytic and/or lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. Notably, RusV RNA or antigen was found in the tissues around the lesions.

RusV RNA was also detected in archival samples from rodents collected from regions in Southern Sweden, close to the regions in which RusV-positive cats were detected. PanRusV reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) detected RusV RNA in eight of 106 (7.5%) wood mice (synonym ‘long-tailed field mice’; Apodemus sylvaticus), but not in 10 yellow-necked field mice from the same location (Matiasek et al., 2023). It was striking that none of the positive wood mice showed inflammatory central nervous system lesions.

Predisposing factors

Access to forested areas was reported to be an important risk factor for staggering disease, since 68% of all clinical cases occurred in cats with access to forests. The frequency of staggering disease shows a clear peak in the spring and winter months (Lundgren, 1992; Matiasek et al., 2023). So far, no association between staggering disease and gender has been described. Affected animals reported by Matiasek et al. (2023) had a median age of 3.2 years (when reported) and all had outdoor access.

Pathogenesis and Immunity

Not much is known about the pathogenesis and a possible immunity of RusV in cats. In humans, the closely related rubella virus induces a lifelong immunity.

Clinical signs

Affected cats develop gait disturbances, ataxia, pain in the lower back region and behavioural changes (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. One-year old female domestic shorthair with typical clinical signs of staggering disease. Courtesy A.L. Lundgren, PhD thesis 1995

In some cases, the affected cats lose the capacity to retract their claws. Clinical signs will usually progress and affected cats will eventually die after developing severe paralysis of the hind legs. However, some cats partially, or even completely, recover. Subclinical infections can also occur. For a further review on clinical signs, please see Tizard et al. (2016).

Diagnosis

In the study by Matiasek et al. (2023), RusV RNA or antigen were detected by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry respectively in the tissues of infected cats and mice, confirming RusV infection. the authors generated monoclonal antibodies directed against recombinant capsid proteins of RusV and developed various RT-PCR protocols. Therefore, appropriate tools for the detection of both virus and antibody are available. Some commercial laboratories offer PCR testing on frozen tissue or cerebrospinal fluid.

Prevention of RusV infection

Currently, no vaccines have been developed for the prevention of staggering disease. As the exact modes of transmission are still unclear, it is difficult to make specific recommendations for the prevention of infection. Cats without access to a rural environment are probably at a low risk of the disease compared to those with unlimited access to forested areas. In areas where staggering disease has been reported, it might therefore be recommended that cats are kept indoors. However, the adverse behavioural and welfare effects of limiting outdoor access for some cats should be carefully considered and compared against the risk of RusV infection when making such decisions as, for many cats, outdoor access is important for their well-being.

Only symptomatic treatment is recommended, there are no antivirals known to be effective available at present.

Zoonotic risk

There is no evidence of RusV infection, or disease caused by RusV, in humans.

Acknowledgement

ABCD Europe gratefully acknowledges the support of Boehringer Ingelheim (the founding sponsor of the ABCD), Virbac and MSD Animal Health.

References

Bennett AJ, Paskey AC, Ebinger A, Pfaff F, Priemer G, Höper D, et al (2020): Relatives of rubella virus in diverse mammals. Nature 586, 424–428. 10.1038/s41586-020-2812-9

Cubitt B, de la Torre JC (1994): Borna disease virus (BDV), a nonsegmented RNA virus, replicates in the nuclei of infected cells where infectious BDV ribonucleoproteins are present. J Virol 68, 1371-1381.

de le Roi M, Puff C, Wohlsein P, Pfaff F, Beer M, Baumgärtner W, Rubbenstroth D (2023): Rustrela Virus as Putative Cause of Nonsuppurative Meningoencephalitis in Lions. Emerg Infect Dis 29(5), 1042-1045.Formularende

Lundgren AL (1992): Feline non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis. A clinical and pathological study. J Comp Pathol 107, 411-425.

Lundgren AL, Johannisson A, Zimmermann W, Bode L, Rozell B, Muluneh A, et al (1997): Neurological disease and encephalitis in cats experimentally infected with Borna disease virus. Acta Neuropathol 93, 391-401.

Lundgren AL, Ludwig H (1993): Clinically diseased cats with non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis have Borna disease virus-specific antibodies. Acta Vet Scand 34, 101-103.

Lundgren AL, Zimmermann W, Bode L, Czech G, Gosztonyi G, Lindberg R, et al (1995): Staggering disease in cats: isolation and characterization of the feline Borna disease virus. J Gen Virol 76, 2215-2222.

Matiasek K, Pfaff F, Weissenböck H, Wylezich C, Kolodziejek J, Tengstrand S, et al. (2023): Mystery of fatal ‘staggering disease’ unravelled: novel rustrela virus causes severe meningoencephalomyelitis in domestic cats. Nat Commun 4;14(1), 624. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-36204-w. PMID: 36739288; PMCID: PMC9899117.

Niller HH, Angstwurm K, Rubbenstroth D, Schlottau K, Ebinger A, Giese S, et al  (2020): Zoonotic spillover infections with Borna disease virus 1 leading to fatal human encephalitis, 1999–2019: an epidemiological investigation. Lancet Infect Dis 20, 467–477.

Pfaff F, Breithaupt A, Rubbenstroth D, Nippert S, Baumbach C, Gerst S, et al (2022): Revisiting Rustrela Virus: New Cases of Encephalitis and a Solution to the Capsid Enigma. Microbiol Spectr 10(2), e0010322. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.00103-22. Epub 2022 Apr 6. PMID: 35384712; PMCID: PMC9045237.

Schlottau K, Jenckel M, van den Brand J, Fast C, Herden C, Hoper D, et al (2017): Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands. Emerg infect dis 23, 477-481.

Tizard I, Ball J, Stoica G, Payne S (2016): Review: The pathogenesis of bornaviral diseases in mammals. Animal Health Research Reviews 17(2), 92–109, ISSN 1466-2523 doi:10.1017/S1466252316000062

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GUIDELINE for Gammaherpesvirus infection in cats https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/guideline-for-gammaherpesvirus-infection-in-cats/ https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/guideline-for-gammaherpesvirus-infection-in-cats/#comments Wed, 29 Nov 2023 10:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=7006 [av_textblock content__locked='aviaTBaviaTBcontent__locked' textblock_styling_align='' textblock_styling_align__locked='aviaTBaviaTBtextblock_styling_align__locked' textblock_styling='' textblock_styling__locked='aviaTBaviaTBtextblock_styling__locked' textblock_styling_gap='' textblock_styling_mobile='' size='' size__locked='aviaTBaviaTBsize__locked' av-desktop-font-size='' av-medium-font-size='' av-small-font-size='' av-mini-font-size='' font_color='' font_color__locked='aviaTBaviaTBfont_color__locked' color='' av-desktop-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-desktop-hide__locked' av-medium-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-medium-hide__locked' av-small-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-small-hide__locked' av-mini-hide__locked='aviaTBaviaTBav-mini-hide__locked' id='' custom_class='' template_class='' template_class__locked='aviaTBaviaTBtemplate_class__locked' element_template='4595' one_element_template='' av_uid='av-2prnvo' sc_version='1.0' admin_preview_bg='']

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GUIDELINE for Gammaherpesvirus infection in cats

Published: 29/11/2023
Last updated:
Last reviewed: 09/02/2024


These guidelines were drafted by Herman Egberink.

Key points

  • Felid gammaherpesvirus 1 (Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1; FcaGHV1) infections are endemic in the cat population.
  • Risk factors associated with FcaGHV1 infection are: male sex, older age, non-pedigree status and coinfections with FIV and haemoplasmas.
  • Based on identified risk factors and associated co-infections, aggressive behaviour is a plausible mode of transmission between cats.
  • Studies so far do not support a role for FcaGHV1 in the development of lymphomas or other carcinomas.

Agent properties

Herpesvirus virions contain a phospholipid envelope and have genomes of linear, double-stranded DNA. The family Orthoherpesviridae (order Herpesvirales) is subdivided into three subfamilies: Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae (GHV). The GHVs are further classified into seven genera: Bossavirus, Lymphocryptovirus Macavirus, Manticavirus, Patagivirus, Percavirus and Rhadinovirus. GHVs are known to infect humans and different animal species, causing persistent and presumably lifelong infections with restricted but recurrent viral replication (Ehlers et al., 2008; Fenner, 2017). This property is known as latency. Members in the subfamily GHV are lymphotropic and establish latency in lymphocytes. Felid Gammaherpesvirus 1 (Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1; FcaGHV1) was first described in 2014 and classified as a gammaherpesvirus within the genus Percavirus (Beatty et al., 2014). FcaGHV1 is not related to feline herpesvirus, which is a  member of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and the cause of upper respiratory and ocular disease (Thiry et al., 2009).

Epidemiology

Since the first description of FcaGHV1 infections in cats in 2014, several studies on the prevalence of this virus infection in populations of cats from different countries have been published. In these studies, the infection with FcaGHV1 was determined by detection of viral DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), mainly in blood but also in tissues, and by the demonstration of specific antibodies in blood (seroprevalence). Antibody testing also allows the identification of cats that have been exposed to FcaGHV1 infection but due to the latent state of infection they do not express DNA or DNA is only present in very low amounts (Stutzman-Rodriguez et al., 2016). Results of these studies show a worldwide distribution of FcaGHV1 infection. Using PCR, infections have been reported in Europe, Australia, USA,  Japan, Brazil and Singapore with 1-23.6% of cats demonstrating viral DNA within their blood (Beatty et al., 2014; Troyer et al., 2014; Ertl et al., 2015; McLuckie et al., 2016a; Kurissio et al., 2018; Makundi et al., 2018; Caringella et al., 2019; Novacco et al., 2019). For the detection of antibodies, an ELISA was developed with two recombinant proteins (expressed from ORF38 and ORF52) that showed the most consistent and strong antibody response. As expected, the seroprevalence was found to be higher than the molecular prevalence of FcaGHV1 DNA, with 32% of samples being seropositive compared to 15% being qPCR positive (Stutzman-Rodriguez et al., 2016). All but one qPCR positive animals were seropositive (Stutzman-Rodriguez et al., 2016).

Possible risk factors for FcaGHV1 infection have been identified in several studies on the prevalence of FcaGHV1 infections. Factors significantly associated with FcaGHV1 detection include male sex, older age, non-pedigree status and coinfections with FIV and haemoplasmas (McLuckie et al., 2016a; Novacco et al., 2019). Also, FcaGHV1 viral load was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats compared with matched controls. Co-infection with FeLV was reported to be associated with FcaGHV1 infection in one study in cats from Singapore (Beatty et al., 2014). In a study from Switzerland FeLV viraemia tended to be associated with FcaGHV1 (but not significantly), with high FcaGHV1 blood loads found more frequently in FeLV viraemic cats as compared to uninfected controls (Novacco et al., 2019). However, in other epidemiological studies an association with FeLV infection could not be confirmed (McLuckie et al., 2017; Kurissio et al., 2018).

FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in oropharyngeal swabs from 26 out of 155 animals (16.8%), which supports the role of the oropharynx as a site of virus shedding (Rose et al., 2022). Using in situ hybridization, viral DNA was detected in salivary epithelium but not in other oronasal tissues. Salivary epithelium was suggested also as a potential site of FcaGHV1 persistence (Rose et al., 2022). The presence of FcaGHV1 in saliva and the identified risk factors (male sex, older age, non-pedigree status, coinfections with FIV and haemoplasmas) support horizontal transmission, plausibly during aggressive behaviour (Beatty et al., 2019). Both FIV and haemoplasmas are associated with FcaGHV1 detection. For FIV, the major route of natural transmission is believed to be via the inoculation of saliva during fighting (Yamamoto et al., 1989). For  infection with haemoplasmas intercat aggression is also considered a mode of transmission (Tasker et al., 2018).

Since the first demonstration of a feline GHV in 2014, novel GHVs have been identified in other felids: in bobcats (Lynx rufus, LruGHV1 and LruGHV2), in pumas (Puma concolor, PcoGHV1), in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, LpaGHV1) (Troyer et al., 2014; Lozano et al., 2015) and in the Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis, LcaGHV1). In an earlier study a GHV was identified in an African lion (PleoGHV1)(Ehlers et al., 2008). All of the previously identified feline GHVs have been found to cluster within the genus Percavirus, with the exceptions of PcoGHV1 and PleoGHV1, which belong to the genus Rhadinovirus (Troyer et al., 2014; Lozano et al., 2015).

GHVs are considered to be host specific. But FcaGHV1 may infect feline species other than the domestic cat as supported by the identification of FcaGHV1 from a Tsushima leopard cat on Tsushima Island, Japan (Makundi et al., 2018).

Pathogenesis and clinical signs

Most of the GHVs are non-pathogenic in their natural host under normal conditions but are associated with disease under conditions of immunosuppression or infection of a non-adapted species (Fenner, 2017). Gammaherpesviruses are lymphotropic: FcaGHV1 was also detected in B- and T-lymphocytes in the blood of persistently infected, asymptomatic cats (McLuckie et al., 2016b).

The identification of an association of gammaherpesvirus infection with disease is expected to be difficult since disease may be an occasional outcome years after infection and may not only depend on immune dysfunction but also on several other host factors, such as coinfections or genetic background (Beatty et al., 2019). Several studies have tried to determine a potential role for FcaGHV1 in disease development (Beatty et al., 2014). In one study FcaGHV1 DNA positive cats were found more likely to be classified as sick, where being healthy or sick was based on a qualitative measure of the health status by a veterinarian (Beatty et al., 2014). But, so far, no clear evidence has been found for an association of FcaGHV1 with a specific disorder.

Some GHVs may induce oncogenic transformation of lymphocytes or epithelial cells, with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as well-known examples of this pathogenesis in humans with HIV (Weed and Damania, 2019). EBV can cause Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in humans (Cesarman, 2011).

The knowledge of a role for human GHV in the development of lymphomas in immunodeficient patients with HIV was the trigger to investigate the existence of feline GHV in the development of lymphomas in FIV infected cats. FIV infected cats are about five times more likely to develop lymphoid malignancies compared to uninfected cats (Hartmann, 2011). In FIV infected cats a higher prevalence of FcaGHV1 infection has been found and also higher FcaGHV1 loads are present in FIV infected cats than in control cats matched for sex and age (Beatty et al., 2014; Ertl et al., 2015). Nonetheless, no potential link between FIV and FcaGHV1 infection and the development of lymphomas has been shown in the few studies that have been published so far. In one study using in situ hybridization to detect viral DNA, only in 1 out of 23 cases of FIV-associated lymphomas was FcaGHV1 DNA identified (Aghazadeh et al., 2018). Similarly, none of the tissue samples from 17 cats with lymphoma tested PCR positive for FcaGHV1 DNA in a Swiss study (Novacco et al., 2019). In another study FcaGHV1 was not identified in four cats with rapidly progressive FIV-associated lymphoma (Magden et al., 2013). Finally, no association was found between FcaGHV1 infection and the development of high-grade lymphoma (McLuckie et al., 2016a).

Diagnosis, prevention and control

A GHV-specific PCR targeting the gB glycoprotein gene can be used to detect GHV DNA in blood or tissue specimens (Troyer et al., 2014). This assay, together with serological assays, are mainly used for research purposes. Since a role of FcaGHV1 in causing disease has so far not been proven, the demonstration of FcaGHV1 has no prognostic or clinical significance for clinical practice.

Zoonotic risk

There is no indication that FcaGHV causes a zoonotic infection.

 Acknowledgement

ABCD Europe gratefully acknowledges the support of Boehringer Ingelheim (the founding sponsor of the ABCD), Virbac, IDEXX GmbH and MSD Animal Health.

References

Aghazadeh M, Shi M, Pesavento PA, Durham AC, Polley T, Donahoe SL, Troyer RM, Barrs VR, Holmes EC, Beatty JA (2018): Transcriptome analysis and in situ hybridization for FcaGHV1 in feline lymphoma. Viruses 10, 464.

Beatty JA, Sharp CR, Duprex WP, Munday JS (2019): Novel feline viruses: Emerging significance of gammaherpesvirus and morbillivirus infections. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 21, 5-11.

Beatty JA, Troyer RM, Carver S, Barrs VR, Espinasse F, Conradi O, Stutzman-Rodriguez K, Chan CC, Tasker S, Lappin MR, VandeWoude S (2014): Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1; a widely endemic potential pathogen of domestic cats. Virology 460-461, 100-107.

Caringella F, Desario C, Lorusso E, Pallante I, Furlanello T, Lanave G, Elia G, Martella V, Iatta R, Barrs VR, Beatty J, Buonavoglia C, Decaro N (2019): Prevalence and risk factors for Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 detection in domestic cats in Italy. Veterinary Microbiology 238, 108426.

Cesarman E (2011): Gammaherpesvirus and lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. Cancer Lett 305, 163-174.

Ehlers B, Dural G, Yasmum N, Lembo T, de Thoisy B, Ryser-Degiorgis M-P, Ulrich Rainer G, McGeoch Duncan J (2008): Novel Mammalian Herpesviruses and Lineages within the Gammaherpesvirinae: Cospeciation and Interspecies Transfer. Journal of Virology 82, 3509-3516.

Ertl R, Korb M, Langbein-Detsch I, Klein D (2015): Prevalence and risk factors of gammaherpesvirus infection in domestic cats in Central Europe Herpes viruses. Virology Journal 12, 146.

Fenner F (2017): Chapter 9 – Herpesvirales. In: MacLachlan NJ, Dubovi EJ (Eds.), Fenner’s Veterinary Virology (Fifth Edition). Academic Press, Boston, 189-216.

Hartmann K (2011): Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 143, 190-201.

Kurissio JK, Rodrigues MV, Taniwaki SA, Zanutto MS, Filoni C, Galdino MV, Araújo Júnior JP (2018): Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) and coinfections with feline viral pathogens in domestic cats in Brazil. Ciencia Rural 48 (03).

Lozano CC, Sweanor LL, Wilson-Henjum G, Kays RW, Moreno R, VandeWoude S, Troyer RM (2015): Identification of novel gammaherpesviruses in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Panama and Colorado, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51, 911-915.

Magden E, Miller C, MacMillan M, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Avery A, Quackenbush SL, Vandewoude S (2013): Acute virulent infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) results in lymphomagenesis via an indirect mechanism. Virology 436, 284-294.

Makundi I, Koshida Y, Endo Y, Nishigaki K (2018): Identification of Felis catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 in Tsushima Leopard Cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) on Tsushima Island, Japan. Viruses 10, 378.

McLuckie A, Tasker S, Dhand NK, Spencer S, Beatty JA (2016a): High prevalence of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 infection in haemoplasma-infected cats supports co-transmission. Veterinary Journal 214, 117-121.

McLuckie AJ, Barrs VR, Smith AL, Beatty JA (2016b): Detection of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) in peripheral blood B- and T-lymphocytes in asymptomatic, naturally-infected domestic cats. Virology 497, 211-216.

McLuckie AJ, Barrs VR, Wilson B, Westman ME, Beatty JA (2017): Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in whole blood from therapeutically immunosuppressed or retrovirus-infected cats. Veterinary Sciences 4, 16.

Novacco M, Kohan NR, Stirn M, Meli ML, Díaz-Sánchez AA, Boretti FS, Hofmann-Lehmann R (2019): Prevalence, Geographic Distribution, Risk Factors and Co-Infections of Feline Gammaherpesvirus Infections in Domestic Cats in Switzerland. Viruses 11, 721.

Rose EC, Tse TY, Oates AW, Jackson K, Pfeiffer S, Donahoe SL, Setyo L, Barrs VR, Beatty JA, Pesavento PA (2022): Oropharyngeal Shedding of Gammaherpesvirus DNA by Cats, and Natural Infection of Salivary Epithelium. Viruses 14, 566.

Stutzman-Rodriguez K, Rovnak J, VandeWoude S, Troyer RM (2016): Domestic cats seropositive for Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 are often qPCR negative. Virology 498, 23-30.

Tasker S, Hofmann-Lehmann R, Belák S, Frymus T, Addie DD, Pennisi MG, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Hartmann K, Hosie MJ, Lloret A, Marsilio F, Radford AD, Thiry E, Truyen U, Möstl K (2018): Haemoplasmosis in cats: European guidelines from the ABCD on prevention and management. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 20, 256-261.

Thiry E, Addie D, Belak S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Gruffydd-Jones T, Hartmann K, Hosie MJ, Lloret A, Lutz H, Marsilio F, Pennisi MG, Radford AD, Truyen U, Horzinek MC (2009): Feline herpesvirus infection. ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. Journal of feline medicine and surgery 11, 547-555.

Troyer RM, Beatty JA, Stutzman-Rodriguez KR, Carver S, Lozano CC, Lee JS, Lappin MR, Riley SPD, Serieys LEK, Logan KA, Sweanor LL, Boyce WM, Vickers TW, McBride R, Crooks KR, Lewis JS, Cunningham MW, Rovnak J, Quackenbush SL, VandeWoude S (2014): Novel Gammaherpesviruses in North American Domestic Cats, Bobcats, and Pumas: Identification, Prevalence, and Risk Factors. Journal of Virology 88, 3914-3924.

Weed DJ, Damania B (2019): Pathogenesis of Human Gammaherpesviruses: Recent Advances. Curr Clin Microbiol Rep 6, 166-174.

Yamamoto JK, Hansen H, Ho EW, Morishita TY, Okuda T, Sawa TR, Nakamura RM, Pedersen NC (1989): Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats from the continental United States and Canada and possible mode of transmission. J Am Vet Med Assoc 194, 213-220.

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Poland: Raw poultry meat most likely source of H5N1, case report shows https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/poland-raw-poultry-meat-most-likely-source-of-h5n1-case-report-shows/ Wed, 08 Nov 2023 20:20:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=6809 In June 2023, numerous cat deaths were documented by Polish media, reported ABCD member Tadeusz Frymus. Several feline cases of an acute, or peracute, disease had been reported. These fatal cases had presented initially with dyspnoea, pulmonary consolidation and neurological signs.

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Poland: Raw poultry meat most likely source of H5N1, case report shows

Published: 08/11/2023

In June 2023, numerous cat deaths were documented by Polish media, reported ABCD member Tadeusz Frymus. Several feline cases of an acute, or peracute, disease had been reported. These fatal cases had presented initially with dyspnoea, pulmonary consolidation and neurological signs.

Subsequently, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus was identified as the cause of these cases (doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2023.28.31.2300366). The clinical course, diagnostic methods, including lung ultrasound examination, and results of laboratory tests have been described in detail for one of these patients. (doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11092263). Poland’s Chief Veterinary Officer reported that until 17 July 2023, H5N1 infection had been confirmed in 33 domestic cats and one captive caracal. However, later the number of affected animals increased, with infected single ferrets and dogs also being identified. The confirmed cases included cats from different locations: Gdansk, Gdynia, Pruszcz Gdanski, Bydgoszcz, Poznan, Lublin and Warsaw.

The source of this infection is not clear. However, in one case raw poultry meat contaminated with H5N1 virus was the most probable cause (https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/2/08-0949_article) and many of the affected cats had been fed raw meat or had access to leftovers.

Attempts to treat the affected cats have included the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-viral feline interferon omega (Virbagen Omega, Virbac), L-arginine supplementation, vitamin D, oxygen supplementation (such as via a tent, if available), as well as other supportive treatment.

The influenza virus is an enveloped virus, which is susceptible to heat, all common disinfectants as well as ultraviolet light (including sunshine).  Indirect transmission can occur; therefore, it is important to clean and disinfect hands and any surfaces that have been exposed to an infected cat (e.g., examination tables, cat carriers, etc).

ABCD continues to monitor the situation. In the meantime, we suggest that cat owners should be advised to keep their pets indoors in areas where avian influenza H5N1 virus has been detected (if possible, although ABCD recognises that this can cause undue stress in animals used to having outdoor access), to prevent contact between cats and wild animals, particularly birds, and to avoid feeding raw food.

The ABCD guideline Influenza Virus Infections in Cats is available at https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/guideline-for-influenza-virus-infections-in-cats/ and was last reviewed on 5 June 2023.

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Young scientist award announcement 2023
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WOAH produces factsheet on avian influenza in cats – with help from the ABCD https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/woah-factsheet-avian-influenza-in-cats/ Mon, 14 Aug 2023 13:01:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=6721 Following the outbreaks of avian influenza in cats in Poland earlier this summer, two ABCD members held discussions with the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH), which subsequently prepared a factsheet on avian influenza in cats.

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WOAH produces factsheet on avian influenza in cats – with help from the ABCD

Published: 14/08/2023

Q & A Avian influenza in cats

Following the outbreaks of avian influenza in cats in Poland earlier this summer, Tadeusz Frymus and Sándor Belák from ABCD held discussions with the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH), which subsequently prepared a factsheet on avian influenza in cats. The factsheet also contains a list of frequently asked questions, such as:

  • Can cats give influenza to humans?
  • What precautions can be taken to avoid exposure of cats to avian influenza?
  • Is cat flu the same thing as avian influenza in cats?

The factsheet on avian influenza in cats is freely available from the WOAH website. For more details on influenza virus infections in cats, see the ABCD guidelines.

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Evelyn Kuhlmeier wins the 2023 Young Scientist Award https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/evelyn-kuhlmeier-wins-the-2023-young-scientist-award/ Sun, 06 Aug 2023 19:30:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=6711 The 2023 ABCD Young Scientist Award, funded by Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health goes to Dr Evelyn Kuhlmeier (27), of the Zurich University Department of Clinical Diagnostics.

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Evelyn Kuhlmeier wins the 2023 Young Scientist Award

Published: 06/08/2023

Evelyn Kuhlmeier Young Scientist 2023

The 2023 ABCD Young Scientist Award, funded by Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health goes to Dr Evelyn Kuhlmeier (27), of the Zurich University Department of Clinical Diagnostics. She accepted her award during the congress of the International Society of Feline Medicine in Dublin in June 2023.

SARS-CoV-2 in companion and stray cats

Evelyn’s study examined the potential transmission routes for SARS-CoV-2 to animals, both in infected households and in free-roaming stray cats. A further aim was to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and to identify the risk factors for infection.

ABCD president professor Margaret Hosie congratulated the laureate, commenting: ‘Evelyn’s study demonstrates that the behaviour of owners and the living conditions of their cats can influence the likelihood of human-to-cat SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Her work is important in the context of a One Health approach, and is both impactful and practical, allowing vets to provide evidence-based advice to SARS-CoV-2-positive cat owners to avoid transmission of the infection.’

Cats of owners with COVID-19 should get ‘plenty of outdoor access’

Dr Evelyn Kuhlmeier added: ‘The knowledge of risk factors for the animals can help owners better protect their cats and prevent infections. For example, as a prophylactic measure, it might be useful to allow such cats plenty of access to the outdoors, as this reduces the time spent in a potentially infectious environment.’ Although cats are known to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infections in pet and stray cats is still limited.

ABCD & Boehringer Ingelheim Young Scientist Awards

Our company is strongly committed to supporting independent research in the field of feline infectious diseases, and the Young Scientist Award represents a wonderful collaboration between Boehringer Ingelheim and the ABCD, said Dr Jean-Philippe Tronel, director of the global technical services for pet vaccines at Boehringer Ingelheim. ‘We warmly congratulate Dr Evelyn Kuhlmeier and encourage everyone to check out the previous winners, most of whom are still very active researchers contributing to the health of our beloved cats.’

The Young Scientist Award, created in 2008, is presented annually to young scientists in veterinary or biomedical sciences, who have made an original contribution in the field of feline infectious diseases and/or immunology.

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ABCD welcomes MSD Animal Health as a new Premium Sponsor https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/msd-animal-health-a-new-premium-sponsor/ Tue, 01 Aug 2023 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=6683 …and that makes four! With the commitment of MSD Animal Health, the ABCD is proud to announce that its activities are now supported by four major players in the animal health field, with MSD joining ranks with Boehringer Ingelheim (founding sponsor), Virbac and Idexx.

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ABCD welcomes MSD Animal Health as a new Premium Sponsor

Published: 01/08/2023

…and that makes four! With the commitment of MSD Animal Health, the ABCD is proud to announce that its activities are now supported by four major players in the animal health field, with MSD joining ranks with Boehringer Ingelheim (founding sponsor), Virbac and Idexx.


“We are very pleased with this latest addition, confirmed ABCD president Margaret Hosie. As ABCD is a self- governing body, the support of all of our Sponsors is greatly appreciated. It allows us to create, update and disseminate our many guidelines, fact sheets and other tools, promoting knowledge of infectious diseases of cats within the veterinary profession in Europe.”
 
Through its commitment to The Science of Healthier Animals®, MSD Animal Health offers veterinarians, farmers, pet owners and governments one of the widest ranges of veterinary pharmaceuticals, vaccines and health management solutions and services as well as an extensive suite of connected technology that includes identification, traceability and monitoring products. MSD Animal Health has a rich history of innovation, commitment to research and entrepreneurship in animal health dating back over 70 years. The company is dedicated to preserving and improving the health, well-being and performance of animals and the people who care for them. Healthier animals mean a sustainable food supply, protection for humans against diseases passed from animals, and longer, healthier lives for pets.
 
For more information, visit https://www.msd-animal-health.com.

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Evelyn Kuhlmeier, ABCD & BI Young scientist awardee 2023
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Prof Sandor receives dhc

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Poland: Cat deaths due to H5N1 – no link with waterfowl https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/poland-h5n1-in-cats/ Tue, 04 Jul 2023 05:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=6641 On 22 June 2023, numerous cat deaths were documented by Polish media, reported ABCD member Tadeusz Frymus. The previous week, several feline cases of an acute, or peracute, disease had been reported. These fatal cases had presented initially with dyspnoea, pulmonary consolidation and neurological signs.

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Poland: Cat deaths due to H5N1 – no link with waterfowl

Published: 04/07/2023

On 22 June 2023, numerous cat deaths were documented by Polish media, reported ABCD member Tadeusz Frymus. The previous week, several feline cases of an acute, or peracute, disease had been reported. These fatal cases had presented initially with dyspnoea, pulmonary consolidation and neurological signs.

Subsequently, Poland’s Chief Veterinary Officer reported that infection with H5N1 avian influenza virus had been confirmed in several of the cats that had died, although the strain was not identical to the strain identified recently in waterfowl on the Baltic coast. The confirmed cases of H5N1 avian influenza included cats from different locations: Gdansk, Gdynia, Pruszcz Gdanski, Bydgoszcz, Poznan, Lublin and Warsaw.

On 5 July 2023, ProMED reported that the H5N1 avian influenza viruses from cats analyzed so far originate from a single, unidentified source, related to the H5N1 viruses circulating in wild birds in recent weeks in Poland.

Attempts to treat the affected cats have included the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, anti-viral feline interferon omega (Virbagen Omega, Virbac), L-arginine supplementation, vitamin D, oxygen supplementation (such as via a tent, if available), as well as other supportive treatment.

The influenza virus is an enveloped virus, which is susceptible to heat, all common disinfectants as well as ultraviolet light (including sunshine).  Indirect transmission can occur; therefore, it is important to clean and disinfect hands and any surfaces that have been exposed to an infected cat (e.g., examination tables, cat carriers, etc).

ABCD is monitoring the situation closely. In the meantime, we suggest that cat owners should be advised to keep their pets indoors (if possible, although ABCD recognises that this can cause undue stress in animals used to having outdoor access), to prevent contact between cats and wild animals, particularly birds, and to avoid feeding raw food.

The ABCD guideline Influenza Virus Infections in Cats is available at https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/guideline-for-influenza-virus-infections-in-cats/ and was last reviewed on 5 June 2023.

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Evelyn Kuhlmeier, ABCD & BI Young scientist awardee 2023
Young scientist award announcement 2023
Prof Sandor receives dhc

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Apply now for the Young scientist award https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/apply-now-for-the-young-scientist-award/ Thu, 26 Jan 2023 11:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=6009 Applications for the 2023 ABCD & Boehringer Ingelheim Young Scientist Award are now open. This award aims to reward innovative and outstanding work by promising young professionals in the field of feline infectious diseases and/or immunology.

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Apply now for the Young scientist award

Published: 26/01/2023

Young scientist award announcement 2023

Applications for the 2023 ABCD & Boehringer Ingelheim Young Scientist Award are now open. This award aims to reward innovative and outstanding work by promising young professionals in the field of feline infectious diseases and/or immunology. For the rules and application form see this page.

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Evelyn Kuhlmeier, ABCD & BI Young scientist awardee 2023
Young scientist award announcement 2023
Prof Sandor receives dhc

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Ultrafiltration of FCoV https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/ultrafiltration-of-fcov/ Sun, 18 Dec 2022 10:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2733 Published: [sc_post_date]
Virologists are always looking for increased infectious titres for research purposes.

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Ultrafiltration of FCoV

Published: 18/12/2022

Virologists are always looking for increased infectious titres for research purposes. In this paper, ABCDs Uwe Truyen and colleagues propose a user-friendly ultrafiltration process to concentrate infectious titres of FCoV, the causal agent of FIP.

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SARS-CoV-2 transmission between people and pets https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/sars-cov-2-transmission-between-people-and-pets/ Wed, 26 Oct 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2712 Published: [sc_post_date]

If both pets and people from the same households are SARS-CoV-2 positive, it's likely due to an owner-to-animal transmission. This and other findings were reported in a recent large-scale prevalence study in the Netherlands, co-authored by ABCD's Herman Egberink.

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SARS-CoV-2 transmission between people and pets

Published: 26/10/2022

If both pets and people from the same households are SARS-CoV-2 positive, it’s likely due to an owner-to-animal transmission. This and other findings were reported in a recent large-scale prevalence study in the Netherlands, co-authored by ABCD’s Herman Egberink. Find out more about SARS-CoV-2 in cats here.

This might also interest you

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Vaccination of Immunocompromised cats https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/vaccination-of-immunocompromised-cats/ Mon, 24 Oct 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2718 Received: 30 March 2022 / Revised: 25 April 2022 / Accepted: 26 April 2022 / Published: 28 April 2022

Vaccinating immunocompromised cats: can you? should you? and if yes, when?

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Vaccination of Immunocompromised cats

Received: 30 March 2022 / Revised: 25 April 2022 / Accepted: 26 April 2022 / Published: 28 April 2022

Vaccinating immunocompromised cats: can you? should you? and if yes, when? Find out more in this paper published by the ABCD in Viruses or on our website, where it’s been summarised in a factsheet.

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Postmortem findings in kitten cured of FIP https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/postmortem-findings-in-kitten-cured-of-fip/ Wed, 19 Oct 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2724 Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 28 October 2021 / Accepted: 1 November 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
Remember the German study on the efficacy of GS-441524 in cats with FIP, co-authored by ABCD's Katrin Hartmann and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann?

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Postmortem findings in kitten cured of FIP

Received: 8 October 2021 / Revised: 28 October 2021 / Accepted: 1 November 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021

Remember the German study on the efficacy of GS-441524 in cats with FIP, co-authored by ABCD’s Katrin Hartmann and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann? One cat in the study sadly died following a road traffic accident 8 months after leaving the clinic healthy. This paper describes the kitten’s post-mortem findings.

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Hans Lutz member of the Academia Europaea https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/hans-lutz-member-of-the-academia-europaea/ Mon, 17 Oct 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2737 Published: [sc_post_date]

Hans Lutz, member of the ABCD and professor emeritus of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (VetSuisse Zurich), was admitted to the Academia Europaea this year due to his scientific publications.

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Hans Lutz member of the Academia Europaea

Published: 17/10/2022

Hans Lutz, member of the ABCD and professor emeritus of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (VetSuisse Zurich), was admitted to the Academia Europaea this year due to his scientific publications. Congratulations!

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Global handwashing day https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/global-handwashing-day/ Sat, 15 Oct 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2741 Published: [sc_post_date]

Today is global hand washing day! A simple and effective way to keep diseases at bay - and this is particularly true for barrier care in cat shelters.

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Global handwashing day

Published: 15/10/2022

Today is global hand washing day! A simple and effective way to keep diseases at bay – and this is particularly true for barrier care in cat shelters. Read more in the ABCD guidelines on the management of infectious diseases in cat shelters.

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Monitoring FIP treatment efficacy https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/monitoring-fip-treatment-efficacy/ Mon, 10 Oct 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2703 Published: [sc_post_date]

Several treatments are now being used against FIP. But how do you know if a cat is recovering? Monitoring acute phase proteins might be of interest, according to ABCD's Diane Addie and colleagues.

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Monitoring FIP treatment efficacy

Published: 10/10/2022

AGP per months

Several treatments are now being used against FIP. But how do you know if a cat is recovering? Monitoring acute phase proteins might be of interest, according to ABCD’s Diane Addie and colleagues. For more on FIP, check out our guidelines.

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Viruses: all you want to know about FCV https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/viruses-all-you-want-to-know-about-fcv/ Fri, 22 Jul 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2765 Received: 30 March 2022 / Revised: 24 April 2022 / Accepted: 25 April 2022 / Published: 29 April 2022

Epidemiologiy, diagnosis, treatment: all the latest updates about feline calicivirus can be found in the recent open-access paper by the ABCD published in Viruses!

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Viruses: all you want to know about FCV


Received: 30 March 2022 / Revised: 24 April 2022 / Accepted: 25 April 2022 / Published: 29 April 2022

Epidemiologiy, diagnosis, treatment: all the latest updates about feline calicivirus can be found in the recent open-access paper by the ABCD published in Viruses! Read more on this topic.

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Vaccination and Antibody Testing in Cats https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/vaccination-and-antibody-testing-in-cats/ Fri, 22 Jul 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=4091 Received: 9 June 2022 / Accepted: 19 July 2022 / Published: 22 July 2022
Abstract
Vaccines protect cats from serious diseases by inducing antibodies and cellular immune responses.

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Vaccination and Antibody Testing in Cats

Viruses 2022, 14(8), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14081602

Received: 9 June 2022 / Accepted: 19 July 2022 / Published: 22 July 2022

Vaccines protect cats from serious diseases by inducing antibodies and cellular immune responses…

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New: Good vaccination practices https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/new-good-vaccination-practices/ Wed, 15 Jun 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2774 Published: [sc_post_date]

What should be discussed during the pre-vaccination interview? Can you change brands during a vaccination schedule? Can hyperimmune sera be administered at the time of vaccination?

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New: Good vaccination practices

Published: 15/06/2022

What should be discussed during the pre-vaccination interview? Can you change brands during a vaccination schedule? Can hyperimmune sera be administered at the time of vaccination? These and other topics are discussed in the latest ABCD guidelines on Good Vaccination Practices.
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Updated: FIP guidelines https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/updated-fip-guidelines/ Mon, 06 Jun 2022 09:24:13 +0000 https://www.abcdcatsvets.org/?p=2777 Published: [sc_post_date]

So much has happened in recent months regarding the diagnosis and treatment of feline infectious peritonitis that it was time for a complete overhaul of the ABCD FIP guidelines! Read them here with the latest on treatment and diagnostics.

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Updated: FIP guidelines

Published: 06/06/2022

So much has happened in recent months regarding the diagnosis and treatment of feline infectious peritonitis that it was time for a complete overhaul of the ABCD FIP guidelines! Read them here with the latest on treatment and diagnostics. We’ve also created a special tool to aid with diagnosis.
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