Feline rabies

edited November 5, 2015

 

The feline rabies guidelines that the present article is updating were published in J Feline Med Surg 2009; 11: 585-593 and updated in J Feline Med Surg 2013; 15: 535-536; this update has been compiled by Tadeusz Frymus and edited by Marian C. Horzinek.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virus

 

Rabies virus is the cause of one of the oldest and most feared diseases of humans and animals (Fig. 1) – it was recognized in Egypt before 2300 BC and in ancient Greece, where it was well described by Aristotle. Perhaps the most lethal of all infectious diseases, rabies also has the distinction of having stimulated one of the great early discoveries in biomedical science. In 1885, before the nature of viruses was comprehended, Louis Pasteur developed, tested, and applied a rabies vaccine, thereby opening the modern era of infectious disease prevention by vaccination.

 

07 rabies Persian miniature

Fig. 1. Persian miniature depicting a person bitten by a (rabid?) dog

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rabies virus is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family, which encompass over 175 viruses of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Based on virion properties and serologic relationships four genera containing animal viruses have been recognized in the family Rhabdoviridae (Kuzmin et al, 2009). The genus Lyssavirus contains 12 species: the rabies virus, the Mokola virus, Lagos bat virus and Duvenhage virus from Africa, European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) 1 and 2, Australian bat lyssavirus, and 5 recently recognized species (Carstens, 2010; OIE 2011). Each of these viruses is considered capable of causing rabies-like disease in animals and humans. There is increasing evidence that lyssaviruses may be able to circulate within bat populations in the absence of disease (Banyard et al. 2011). So far only EBLV have been confirmed in bats in Europe.

 

 

 

 

 

Rhabdovirions consist of an outer envelope with large peplomers and an inner, helically coiled cylindrical nucleocapsid. The precise cylindrical form of the nucleocapsid gives the viruses their distinctive bullet or conical shape (Figs 2, 3). The genome is a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA, 11 to 15 kb in size. The genome contains 5 genes in the order 3’-N-NS-M-G-L-5’. The viruses generally have 5 proteins. The glycoprotein that makes up the peplomers contains neutralizing epitopes, which are targets of vaccine-induced immunity as well as epitopes involved in cell-mediated immunity. Virions also contain lipids, their structure reflecting the composition of host cell membranes, and carbohydrate side-chains on the glycoprotein.

 

07 rabies-virion-EM false color

Fig. 2. False colour electron micrograph of a rabies virion

 

 

07 rabies virions PTA

Fig. 3. Negative contrast electron micrograph of rabies virions

 

 

Rhabdoviruses may be stable in the environment especially at alkaline pH but are thermolabile and sensitive to the UV irradiation of sunlight. In clinical practice, rabies virus is easily inactivated by detergent-based disinfectants.  Viral entry into host cells occurs via fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane; all replication steps occur in the cytoplasm. Virions are formed by the budding of nucleocapsids through cell membranes. Rabies virus budding takes place mostly upon intracytoplasmic membranes of infected neurons, but almost exclusively upon plasma membranes of salivary gland epithelial cells. The replication of rabies viruses is slow and usually non-cytopathic because it does not shut down host cell protein and nucleic acid synthesis.

 

Rabies virus produces prominent cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) in infected cells (Figs 4, 5).

 

07 rabies Negri HE stain edt

Fig. 4. Negri body (arrow) in a rabies virus infected neuron, hematoxylin/eosin stain

07 rabies negri-bodies

Fig. 5. Multiple Negri bodies in rabies virus infected cells

 

Laboratory-adapted (“fixed”) rabies virus replicates well in Vero (African green monkey kidney) cells and BHK-21 (baby hamster kidney) cells, which are the most common substrates for growing animal rabies viruses for vaccine production. Rabies virus also replicates to high titer in suckling mouse and suckling hamster brain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epidemiology

 

The disease occurs worldwide, with certain exceptions. Large regions in Europe became free of terrestrial (i.e. not bat-transmitted) rabies as a result of wildlife vaccination programmes. The rabies situation and the regulations are continuously updated on the web sites of the OIE and WHO.  The number of yearly human deaths is estimated at approximately 40, 000 to 100,000 worldwide, and more than 15 million people receive post-exposure treatments after being exposed to suspectedly rabid animals. Dog rabies is important in many parts of the world and the principal cause of human cases.

 

07 rabies map Europe 1990

Distribution map for rabies in Europe, 1990

07 rabies map Europe 2000

Distribution map for rabies in Europe, 2000

07 rabies map Europe 2010

Distribution map for rabies in Europe, 2010

 

Fig. 6. The success of rabies control in Europe. Source: World Health Organisation

 

 

In many countries, wildlife rabies has become of increasing importance as a threat to domestic animals and humans, and transmission from vampire bats is an important issue. The red fox, raccoon, skunk and racoon-dog are the main reservoir species of terrestrial rabies in Europe and the Americas.

 

There is increasing evidence that lyssaviruses may circulate within bat populations in the absence of disease. So far only EBLVs have been confirmed in bats in Europe.

 

As a result of the mass vaccination of dogs, in many areas affected by wildlife rabies, cats have become the companion animal species most commonly reported as rabid, as is the case in many states of the USA (Gerhold and Jessup, 2013). In a recent report from Pennsylvania, among 2755 rabid animals with reported human exposure, as many as 799 (29.0 %) were free-ranging cats, whereas only 57 (2.1 %) were dogs (Campagnolo et al., 2014).

 

 

 

Rabies-free Countries

 

Strictly enforced quarantine of dogs and cats for various periods before entry has been used to effectively eliminate terrestrial rabies from Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), Australia, New Zealand and several other islands. Rabies was never endemic in wildlife in the UK and was eliminated from dogs in 1902, and again in 1922 after re-introduction in the dog population in 1918. Since then, there had been no rabies cases in the UK – until recently when isolated reports of bats infected with European bat viruses appeared. However, these incidents did not alter the (terrestrial) rabies-free status of the UK. In contrast, rabies was not recognized in Australia until recently, when the Australian bat lyssavirus was discovered, and subsequently found to be endemic in south-east Australia.

 

Illegal importation of pets from regions where the disease is endemic poses an increasing risk (BBC, 2014). Rabies was recently recognized in a kitten imported to France from Morocco (Anonymous, 2013), and a few cases in dogs were documented in Europe.

 

 

Developing Countries

 

In most countries of Asia, Latin America and Africa, endemic dog rabies is a serious problem, causing significant domestic animal and human mortality. In these countries, human vaccines are used in large numbers of doses, and there is a continuing need for comprehensive, professionally organized and publicly supported rabies control agencies.  That such agencies are not in place in many developing countries is a reflection of their high cost; nevertheless, progress is being made. For example, a substantial decrease in rabies incidence has been reported in recent years in China, Thailand and Sri Lanka, following implementation of dog vaccination programmes and improved post-exposure prophylaxis of humans. Similarly, the number of rabies cases in Latin America is declining significantly; the Pan American Health Organization has implemented a vaccination program to eliminate urban dog rabies from the Southern hemisphere.

 

 

Industrialized Countries

 

In most industrialised countries, even those with a modest disease burden, publicly supported rabies control agencies operate in the following areas:(1) programmes of oral vaccination of wildlife, in Europe of the red fox;(2) stray dog and cat removal and control of the movement of pets (quarantine is used in epidemic circumstances, but rarely);(3) immunization of dogs and cats, so as to break the chain of virus transmission;(4) laboratory diagnosis, to confirm clinical observations and obtain accurate incidence data;(5) surveillance, to measure the effectiveness of all control measures; and(6) public education programs to assure cooperation.  The cat is considered in some European countries to be a high-risk species for transmission to human beings. For example, of more than 20,000 inhabitants in Switzerland that had to be vaccinated after exposure to rabies in the years from the late 1960s until the early 1990s, around 70% had been either bitten or in close contact with cats (Hohl et al, 1978). Even if feline rabies is considered to be a by-product of canine or wild rabies (Blancou & Pastoret 1990), behavioural characteristics of cats and clinical aspects of the disease in this species render it important for public health reasons. In fact, despite a lower number of post-exposure prophylaxis treatment for people following cat bites compared to dog bites, treatment is justified more often (Blancou & Pastoret 1990).

 

 

Rabies transmission fox dog

Fig. 7. Rabies transmission from fox to dog – didactic poster

 

Pathogenesis

 

Rabid animals are the only source of virus. It is shed in the saliva some days before the onset of clinical signs, and the agent is transmitted through a bite (Fig. 7) or a scratch of the skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth). The blood of rabid animals is not infectious.

 

The average incubation period in cats is two months, but may vary from 2 weeks to several months or even years, depending on the dose of virus transmitted and the severity and site of the wound (Jackson 2002, Charlton et al, 1997). The incubation period is variable because the virus moves along peripheral nerves with the normal axoplasmic flow from the inoculation site to the central nervous system (CNS): hence the greater the distance from the CNS, the longer the incubation period; and the greater the density of innervation of the inoculated tissue, the shorter this duration (Greene & Rupprecht, 2006).

 

Very long incubation periods have been described in some experimental cases (Murphy et al, 1980 EBM grade III), which must be taken into account when evaluating wound history, especially in free-roaming cats exhibiting sudden behavioural change and/or signs of motor neuron dysfunction that may initiate the clinical phase.  The virus replicates in striated muscle and connective tissue at the site of inoculation and then enters the peripheral nerves through the neuromuscular junction (Murphy et al, 1973). Alternatively, it can infect peripheral nerves directly, spreading to the CNS via the axonal route.

 

The virus then travels to the salivary glands by the retrograde axonal route. At this time, the animal becomes infectious, i.e. about 3 days before the first clinical signs appear. By that time, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the organs. In most cases, death occurs within 5 days so that a cat or a dog will be shedding the virus in saliva for about 8 days in total.

 

Most clinical signs are related to the virus-induced central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction rather than neuronal death, and abnormalities in neurotransmission have been described (Jackson 2002). The rabies virus glycoprotein probably plays a role in the trans-synaptic spread of the virus between neurons and in the topographic distribution of virus infections through the nervous system (Etessami et al, 2000).

 

 

Immunity

 

Passive immunity acquired via colostrum

 

Kittens from vaccinated queens obtain maternally derived antibodies (MDA) via the colostrum. The MDA titer in kittens depends on both the antibody level of the queen and the amount of colostrum ingested during the first day of life. In most kittens, MDA will not persist for longer than 12 weeks. MDA have been demonstrated even in the sera of fox cubs whelped by orally immunized vixens (Vos et al, 2003).Passive immunity may neutralize vaccine virus, thereby inhibiting immunoglobulin production and interfering with immunization during the first weeks of life. Therefore, it is generally recommended to perform the primary vaccination in kittens not earlier than at 12 weeks of age.

 

 

Active immune response

 

Rabies virus antigens are highly immunogenic and capable of eliciting the full spectrum of protective immune responses. The virus is not cytopathogenic, cells are not destroyed during replication or maturation, and little antigen is presented to the immune system. Neither humoral nor cell-mediated specific responses can be detected during the early stages of movement of virus from the site of the bite to the central nervous system (Green 1997). Hence, infection of naive animals with rabies virus most often results in disease and death.  Such sequel may be averted by prompt immunization following exposure, demonstrating that the development of anti-rabies viral immunity prior to extensive infection of neurons is protective.

 

It is well documented that neutralizing antibody is crucial in this immunity. Rabies is an example of a “Th-2 healing disease”, where activation of B lymphocytes with the help of CD4 T cells is important for protection. When activated, primarily by the viral N protein, CD4 T cells produce cytokines (IL-4) that stimulate B cells to produce antibodies. In contrast, rabies-specific CD8 T cells cause neuronal damage when a Th-1 response (IFN-γ and TNF-α) predominates (Lafon 2002, Hooper 2005).  However, vaccinated animals without detectable virus neutralizing antibody have survived rabies challenge, indicating that other mechanisms may also protect against this disease (Aubert 1992, Hooper et al, 1998).

 

After intramuscular infection, the virus replicates locally for several weeks in the myocytes or nervous tissue. In vaccinated cats with adequate serum antibody titers, the virus is often neutralized during this early incubation period. In contrast, unvaccinated cats exposed to rabies virus can produce an antiviral immune response, usually late in the clinical course, that fails to prevent disease (Johnson et al, 2006). However, protection against the early stages of infection is provided by innate immunity, in which interferon seem to play a critical role. High levels of interferon are detectable in sera of mice inoculated with rabies virus by peripheral or intracerebral routes (Marcovistz et al, 1984, 1994; Johnson et al, 2006).

 

It is not clear how effective these mechanisms are in naturally exposed naive cats. It is believed that factors determining morbidity include the amount and strain of the virus, the age and immunocompetence of the cat, and the site of the bite; in unvaccinated cats the risk of developing rabies is higher (and the incubation period shorter) in a young animal that has been bitten severely in the head, with a high saliva deposit in the wound, as compared to an adult cat bitten in a limb, especially after extensive bleeding (Pastoret et al, 2004).

 

In natural infections of unvaccinated animals, neutralizing antibody appears usually after the virus has entered the central nervous system. Hence, once symptoms are evident, recovery from rabies is exceedingly rare. There have been a few reports of humans and animals that have recovered following confirmed clinical rabies (Bernard 1985, Fekadu 1991). Furthermore, antibodies to lyssaviruses have been detected occasionally in domestic or wild cats with no history of vaccination, suggesting a non-fatal disease or subclinical infection (Tjørnehøj et al, 2004; Deem et al, 2004).

 

Antibodies only appear in the terminal phase of the disease and usually cannot prevent its fatal outcome; however, they have also been detected in non-vaccinated, feral animals. In spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) an antibody prevalence of 37% was shown, perhaps resulting from small infectious doses transmitted, e.g. due to the hyenas’ particular behaviour of licking anothers’ muzzles as a greeting behaviour (East et al., 2001). – Rabies is prevalent among lions’ prey and food competitor species, still there are only a few reported deaths in lions (Swanepoel et al., 1993). Lions may be less susceptible to the disease and acquire protective antibodies from natural infection (Lutz 2011; http://www.research-projects.uzh.ch/p14931.htm).

 

 

Clinical signs

 

Aggressive behaviour towards humans is unusual in healthy cats, so any unjustified aggressive behaviour in cats must be considered highly suspicious. Rabies should be suspected not only when there has been a recent history of a bite by or exposure to a rabid animal but also where an unvaccinated cat may have been in contact with potentially infected wildlife, such as bats. Indeed, in November 2007, a cat in France died of rabies as a result of infection with bat lyssavirus. However, although rabid bats have been reported in the UK (Johnson et al, 2003; Fooks et al, 2004) and the Mammal Society estimates that British cats could be killing 230,000 bats a year (Woods et al, 2003), no cases of cat rabies have been documented in the UK. These findings indicate that the risk of cats becoming infected with rabies from bats may be low.

 

07 rabies JFMS Fig.1

Fig. 8. Rabid cat, furious syndrome. Courtesy of Andy Sparkes and AFFSA/ERZ (inset)

 

Two disease forms can be identified in cats: the furious and the dumb one. The furious form (Fig. 8) has three clinical phases (prodromal, furious or psychotic and paralytic) but they are not always distinct in cats. The dumb form (Fig. 9) has two phases: prodromal and paralytic. During the very short prodromal phases (12-48 hours) of both forms, a wide range of quite non-specific clinical signs (fever, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhoea) may occur, sometimes accompanied by neurological signs. Behavioural changes may be noticed first, such as an unusually friendly or otherwise shy or irritated behaviour and increased vocalization. Altered behaviour depends on forebrain involvement and may be associated with other neurological signs reflecting the infection site.

 

07 rabies JFMS Fig.2

Fig. 9. Rabid cats, dumb syndrome. Courtesy of Artur Borkowski, AFFSA/ERZ, and Merial S.A.S.

 

If the bite occurs in the face, clinical signs reflect cranial nerve and forebrain involvement: the former may produce depressed or absent reflexes (palpebral, corneal, pupillary etc.), strabismus, dropped jaw, inability to move whiskers forward, dysphagia, laryngeal paralysis, voice change, tongue paralysis. Forebrain involvement is responsible for seizures, muscular twitching or tremors, aimless pacing, exaggerated emotional responses (irritability, rage, fearfulness, photophobia, attacking inanimate objects etc). The tendency to bite may be the consequence of the loss of inhibitory control by cortical neurons over the subcortical bite reflex; dogs and cats then turn and snap at anything that touches them around the mouth (O’Brien & Axlund, 2005), without warning or showing any emotion. Pruritus at the bite site can be observed (as in pseudorabies virus infection).

 

If the infecting bite was on the limbs, neurological signs start from the spinal cord and an ascending lower motor neuron (LMN) paralysis occurs before the brain signs. The inflammation rapidly spreads throughout the CNS producing severe ataxia, disorientation, paralysis, seizures, status epilepticus, eventually followed by coma and death from respiratory arrest. The furious phase is more consistently developed in cats showing behaviour abnormalities (Fogelman et al, 1993 EBM grade III). The paralytic phase (paraparesis, incoordination, generalized paralysis, coma and death) usually begins five days after the first clinical signs. Isolated reports of survival after a confirmed clinical disease are available for cats, dogs and humans (Bernard 1985, Fekadu 1991), but death usually occurs after a clinical course of 1-10 days. Cats often die in 3-4 days (Rupprecht & Childs, 1996), whereas dogs mostly succumb within two days (Tepsumethanon et al, 2004 EBM grade III).

 

Atypical forms of chronic rabies in cats have been described after experimental infection (Murphy et al, 1980 EBM grade III).

 

The serious public health risk (particularly for veterinarians) requires a careful differential diagnosis. Any CNS disease characterized by sudden onset and rapidly evolving clinical signs must include rabies for free roaming, unvaccinated cats living in endemic areas or traveling there. The clinical examination must make safety the highest priority, because manipulation and restraint of the patient may provoke biting – at a time when the salivary glands are already infected and rabies virus is shed. Rabies should be included in the differential diagnosis in live cats with suspected encephalitis, based on anamnestic history and observation when the animal is still in the carrier, to reduce the risk of exposure for the veterinary team (see the flow chart below, adapted from Tepsumethanon et al., 2003).

 

Assessing the likelihood of rabies

Assessing the likelihood of rabies (Courtesy SAGE Publishers, J Feline Med Surg 2009; 11: 585-593)

 

Vaccine-induced feline rabies was observed in the past when modified-live vaccines were used. Neurological signs occurred several weeks after vaccination and were characterized mostly by progressive upper motor neuron (UMN) limb paralysis and cranial nerve deficits.

 

 

Clinical signs of cats infected by rabies virus

History and clinical signs observed by the owner:

1. Dramatic behavioural changes, staggering, stumbling

2. Aggressiveness, unprovoked biting

 

 

General appearance and clinical signs at observation

1. Furious form seen in 90% of rabid cats

2. Deterioration in nutritional status (anorexia)

3. Ruffled and dirty coat (the cat does not clean itself)

4. Mucous membranes, tongue, nose and footpads are reddish pink, high fever

5. Chin and front legs are wet from salivation

6. Permanent movement and restlessness

7. Imbalanced gait, paresis of the hind legs

8. Pupil dilatation unresponsive to light

9. Abnormal water uptake (water runs from the mouth)

Courtesy Dr Veera Tepsumethanon

 

Diagnosis

 

Because a clinical diagnosis of rabies is unreliable, a definitive diagnosis must be obtained by post-mortem laboratory examination.

Serological tests are used for surveys and post-vaccinal control in order to test immunity level in vaccinated animals, especially in the context of international movements.

 

 

OIE recommendations

 

Recommendations from experts of the OIE First International Conference “Rabies in Europe” (Kiev, Ukraine, 15-18 June 2005) are:

 

i) Routine laboratory diagnosis should be undertaken using only the techniques specified by the OIE (Terrestrial Manual – OIE 2011) and the WHO (Laboratory Techniques in Rabies)

 

ii) The Fluorescent antibody test (FAT) is the primary method recommended

 

iii) The confirmation test should use rabbit tissue culture inoculation test (RTCIT). The mouse inoculation test can be used only if rabbit tissue culture is not available

 

iv) PCR is presently not recommended for routine diagnosis but may be useful for epidemiological studies or for confirmatory diagnosis only in reference laboratories.

 

Reference laboratories: The list of reference experts and laboratories can be found on the OIE web site (http://www.oie.int/en/our-scientific-expertise/reference-laboratories/list-of-laboratories/).

 

 

Virus detection methods

 

Only direct detection methods are recommended to confirm rabies in human beings and animals.

 

Samples (animal heads, brain tissues or other organs) should be sent according to the national and international shipping regulations and care should be taken in order to avoid potential human contamination. Because rabies virus is rapidly inactivated, the specimen should be shipped (preferably) refrigerated or at room temperature in 50% glycerin in phosphate buffered saline solution.

 

Brain tissue (especially thalamus, pons and medulla) is the preferred sample for postmortem diagnosis but other organs such as salivary glands can also be used.

 

 

Fluorescent antibody test

 

The FAT is the method recommended by WHO and OIE for fresh or glycerol samples (Bourhy et al, 1989, Birgham & van der Merwe 2002), but is less sensitive in formalin-fixed tissues. It provides a reliable diagnosis in 95% to 99% of cases for all lyssaviruses in fresh samples. It can also be used for rabies detection in cell cultures and in brain tissue of mice that have been inoculated for diagnosis (Fig. 10).

 

07 rabies Negri bodies IFT

Fig. 10. Immunofluorescence in an infected neuron, with prominent Negri inclusion bodies

 

Immunochemical methods

 

Other methods available include immunochemical tests (e.g. avidin-biotin peroxydase system, ELISA, direct blot enzyme immunoassay). The rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis (RREID) is an alternative to FAT but detects only the rabies virus. Correlation between FAT and RREID is between 96 and 99% (Barrat 1993).

 

 

Inoculation to laboratory animals and cell cultures

 

These tests are used to confirm inconclusive results with FAT in organs or when FAT is negative if human exposure has been reported.

 

Intracerebral inoculation of mice is performed in newborn or 3 to 4 week-old mice. FAT is used to detect virus 5 days to 11 days post-inoculation. Ideally, these inoculation tests should be replaced by cell culture tests, which are as sensitive, less time-consuming and more ethical. Neuroblastoma cell lines may be used and presence of the rabies virus is revealed by FAT, with results being available within 2 to 4 days.

 

 

Histology, immunochemistry

 

Since histology and immunohistochemistry to detect Negri bodies are less sensitive than FAT, especially in autolysed tissues, these methods are not recommended for routine diagnosis.

 

 

Other direct methods

 

Reference laboratories may identify rabies virus, especially variants, using monoclonal antibodies, nucleic acid probes or PCR and sequencing. These techniques can distinguish vaccine and field strains and may identify the geographic origin of the isolate.

 

 

Serology

 

Seroneutralisation

 

Seroneutralisation tests in cell cultures, such as fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation (FAVN) or rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) are widely used to confirm immunity induced by vaccination. The principle of FAVN is neutralisation in vitro of a rabies CVS strain before inoculating BHK-21 C13 cells. The titer is expressed in international units (IU/ml) and is the reciprocal value of the dilution at which 100% of the virus is neutralised in 50% of the wells. RFFIT and FAVN give equivalent results. A value of 0.5 IU/ml of serum antibodies is the internationally accepted threshold titer.

 

 

ELISA

 

ELISA is used for testing vaccinated animals (Servat et al, 2007). Commercial kits are available for the detection of antibodies in sera from vaccinated cats and dogs. The tests do not require the culture of live virus, and result can be obtained within 4 hours. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA still need to be confirmed before it can be accepted as an official method (Servat et al, 2006). For further details, refer to Barrat et al, (2006) and the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (OIE 2011).

 

 

Rabies control in cats

 

Treatment (post-exposure vaccination)

 

The post-exposure management of cats depends on the national public health regulations, but is forbidden in many countries. Usually, it is not authorised in case of clinical suspicion. No supportive or specific treatment has proved to be effective in rabid cats, so treatment is not recommended (Greene & Rupprecht, 2006).

 

 

Prophylaxis (preventive vaccination)

 

Because of the public health risk associated with susceptible domestic cats becoming infected following exposure to rabid wild or domestic animals, all cats with outdoor access in endemic areas should be vaccinated. The vaccine should be administered in accordance with local or state regulations. In countries where rabies is absent, rabies vaccination is indicated when the cat moves or travels to an area where rabies is endemic.

 

Rabies in cats is usually controlled by traditional inactivated vaccines (OIE 2011) and at present, several products are available commercially. They are very efficient and generally considered to be safe, even in neonatal kittens. Though differences in the efficacy between some commercial rabies vaccines used in Europe have been demonstrated (Minke et al, 2009, Zanoni et al, 2010, Berndtsson et al, 2011), following a single vaccination these products have been shown to induce in most animals a titer above 0.5 IU/ml what is an internationally accepted threshold antibody level (Fu 1997, Perez & Paolazzi 1997, Minke et al, 2009 EBM grade III, Van de Zande et al, 2009 EBM grade III, Berndtsson et al, 2011 EBM grade III).

 

Cats respond better to rabies vaccination than dogs and the proportion of cats developing after the first vaccination a titer over 0.5 IU/ml has been determined as only 2.6% (Cliquet, 2006) or as tested 6 to 12 months post vaccination as about 8% (Zanoni et al, 2010 EBM grade III).

 

Many cats develop after the first vaccination titers even above 5 IU/ml (Cliquet, 2006). In cats and dogs, the peak of rabies neutralizing antibodies is generally reached between 4 to 8 weeks after the first immunization (Cliquet 2006, Minke et al, 2009 EBM grade III). Cats and dogs with a neutralization titer above 0.5 IU/ml, regardless of the period of time elapsed since vaccination have a very high probability of survival after a rabies infection (Cliquet 2006).

 

A very small proportion of cats identified with rabies have had at least one rabies vaccination during their lifetime (Greene & Rupprecht, 2006). Since the new EU regulations in pet movement were put in place in 1993, no single case of rabies in a vaccinated cat has been documented (Cliquet 2006).

 

Nevertheless, the titer decreases with time. In a recent epidemiological study among thousands of dogs tested 120 to 360 days post vaccination the proportion of animals with a titer below 0.5 IU/ml was 12.6%, or 3.1%, depending on the vaccine brand used (Berndtsson et al, 2011 EBM grade III). There is increasing evidence that the persistence of antibody after the first rabies vaccination may be much shorter than generally believed, especially in dogs. It has been demonstrated that antibody titers fall below 0.5 IU/ml in almost 21% of dogs within 4-6 months after a single vaccination (Van de Zande et al, 2009 EBM grade III) and in many puppies it happens as early as after 56 or even 28 days (Minke et al, 2009 EBM grade III). In another study the proportion of dogs with titers below 0.5 IU/ml reached 6 months after the first vaccination 30% and then stabilized at above 30 % during the next 6 months (Zanoni et al, 2010 EBM grade III).

 

Thus a new regimen for rabies vaccination consisting of double primary vaccination with a short interval of 7 – 10 days and a one-year booster has been postulated (Zanoni et al, 2010). This procedure reduced the proportion of cats developing titer below 0.5 IU/ml to almost 0% as tested within 6 months and in dogs this proportion was also significantly lower than in animals with single primary vaccination (Zanoni et al, 2010 EBM grade III).

 

 

Current rabies vaccines also cross-protect against some other lyssaviruses

 

 

All cat and dog sera with a titer above 5 IU/ml neutralize EBL-1 and EBL-2 regardless of vaccine virus strain and among sera with a titer between 0.5 and 5 IU/ml 87% neutralize EBL-1 and 53% EBL-2 (Fooks, personal communication). However, against some novel lyssaviruses isolated from bats in Eurasia the protection may be reduced or negligible depending on the genetic distance between the new isolate and the rabies virus (Hanlon et al, 2005 EBM grade III).

 

Inactivated vaccines may carry a risk due to the remote possibility of incomplete inactivation of the virus and the inadvertent spread of residual pathogenic particles of rabies virus (Schneider 1995). Furthermore, inactivated rabies vaccines may be associated with the development of injection site sarcomas in cats (Dubielzig et al, 1993). Such problems led to continued efforts to develop safer rabies vaccines. New vaccines include recombinant subunit proteins (Wunner et al, 1983), recombinant viral vectors (Paoletti 1996, Xiang et al, 1996 EBM grade III) and DNA-based vaccines (Osorio et al, 1999 EBM grade III, Cupillard et al, 2005).

 

Recombinant live vector vaccines have some advantages over traditional products: they are innocuous, they induce suitable humoral immune responses and they do not require rabies virus to be handled (Paoletti 1996). They also induce less inflammation at the site of injection (Day et al, 2007 EBM grade III). A non-adjuvanted recombinant canarypox rabies vaccine for cats has been approved for use in the European Union in 2011.

 

Because of the public health risk associated with susceptible domestic cats becoming infected following exposure to rabid wild or domestic animals, all cats with outdoor access in endemic areas should be vaccinated against this disease. The vaccine should be administered in accordance with local or state regulations. In countries where rabies is absent, rabies vaccination is indicated when the cat moves or travels to an area where rabies is endemic.

 

Primary vaccination course

 

In contrast to all other inactivated vaccines, a single rabies vaccination induces in most cats a long lasting immunity due to the immunogenic properties of the vaccinal antigen. Kittens should be vaccinated at 12 to 16 weeks of age to avoid interference from maternal antibodies, with revaccination one year later (depending on data sheet recommendations for each brand of vaccine). With this schedule, a single vaccination is sufficient in most cats. However, national or regional legislation regarding vaccination type and interval should be adhered too.

 

 

Booster vaccinations

 

Although some commercial vaccines provide protection against virulent rabies challenge for 3 years or longer (Lakshmanan et al, 2006, EBM grade III), national or local legislation may require annual boosters.

 

 

Disease control in specific situations

 

Shelters

 

In endemic areas, stray cats should be always considered at exposure risk and handling or nursing of rescued animals should be considered dangerous even if they are asymptomatic.

 

 

Breeding catteries

 

Risk exposure is generally almost nil in breeding catteries because usually pedigree cats are kept strictly indoors, but their vaccination is under local or state regulation.

 

 

Vaccination of immunocompromised cats

 

FIV-positive cats

 

FIV-positive cats should be kept confined indoors to avoid transmission to other cats, to protect them from other infections and to slower the progression of FIV infection itself. This is an efficient preventive measure for rabies in areas at risk, but national or regional legislation should be adhered too. In outdoor cats with risk of exposure to rabies, vaccination is strongly advised.

 

FeLV-positive cats

 

In vaccination studies it was demonstrated that FeLV-infected cats may not be able to mount adequate immune response to some rabies vaccines (Franchini 1990). FeLV infected cats should be confined strictly indoors to prevent spread to other cats in the neighborhood: if cats are allowed to go outside in area at risk for rabies, more frequent vaccination may need to be considered (e.g. every 6 months).

 

 

Chronic disease

 

There is general agreement that cats with acute disease should not be vaccinated but cats with chronic illness such as renal disease, diabetes mellitus or hyperthyroidism should be vaccinated regularly if they are at risk of exposure.

 

 

Cats receiving corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs

 

In cats receiving corticosteroids, every vaccination should be considered carefully. Depending on dosage and duration of treatment, corticosteroids may cause functional suppression of immune responses, particularly cell-mediated immunity, but studies exploring rabies vaccine efficacy in cats receiving corticosteroids are lacking. In dogs, corticosteroids do not appear to result in ineffective immunizations if given for short periods of time at low to moderate doses (Nara et al, 1979). However, concurrent use of corticosteroids at the time of vaccination should be avoided if practical.

 

 

Rabies vaccination and cat movement within the EU

 

The Directive 998/2003 of the European Community established new rules for non-commercial movement of pet animals between EU countries (dogs, cats and ferrets). According to these rules all such animals should be identified by tattoo and/or microchip and vaccinated against rabies, and a 21-day waiting period in case of primary vaccination is required. In addition, the above Regulation provides that some countries maintain their national provisions for a transitional period. In this case, before entry of the country an individual serological test for rabies neutralizing antibodies is required demonstrating that the titer is at least 0.5 U/ml.

 

As the national requirements are changing, the actual legislation must be checked and followed in case of international pet movement.

 

 

References

 

Anonymous (2013). Rabies confirmed in an imported kitten in France. Vet Rec 173: 435. doi: 10.1136/vr.f6683.

 

Aubert MF (1992). Practical significance of rabies antibodies in cats and dogs. Rev Sci Tech 11: 735-760.

 

Banyard AC, Hayman D, Johnson N, McElhinney L, Fooks AR (2011). Bats and lyssaviruses. Adv Virus Res 79: 239-289.

 

Barrat J (1993). ELISA systems for rabies antigen detection. Proceedings of the Southern and Eastern African Rabies Group International Symposium. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 29-30 April 1993, 152-155.

 

Barrat J, Picard-Meyer E, Cliquet, F (2006). Rabies diagnosis. Dev Biol (Basel) 125: 71-77.

 

BBC (2014). Dog smuggling into UK on increase. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-25957668.

 

Bernard KW (1985). Clinical rabies in humans. In Rabies concepts for medical professionals Ed Winkler WG. Merieux Institute, Miami, FL, 45.

 

Berndtsson LT, Nyman A-KJ, Rivera E, Klingeborn B (2011). Factors associated with the success of rabies vaccination of dogs in Sweden. Acta Vet Scand 53: 22-28.

 

Birgham J, van der Merwe M (2002). Distribution of rabies antigen in infected brain material: determining the reliability of different regions of the brain for the rabies fluorescent antibody test. J Virol Methods 101: 85-94.

 

Blancou J, Pastoret P-P (1990). La rage du chat et sa prophylaxie. Ann Med Vet 134: 315-324.

 

Bourhy H, Rollin PE, Vincent J, Sureau P (1989). Comparative field evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test, virus isolation from tissue culture, and enzymes immunodiagnosis for rapid laboratory diagnosis of rabies. J Clin Microbiol 27: 519-523.

 

Campagnolo ER, Lind LR, Long JM, Moll ME, Rankin JT, Martin KF, Deasy MP, Dato VM, Ostroff SM (2014). Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania. Zoonoses Public Health 61: 346-355. doi: 10.1111/zph.12077.

 

Charlton KM, Nadin-Davis S, Casey GA, Wandeler AI (1997). The long incubation period in rabies progression of infection in muscle at the site of exposure. Acta Neuropathol 94, 73-77.

 

Cliquet F (2006). Vaccination of pets against rabies in the context of movements in the EU – Serological testing as a measure to check efficacy of rabies vaccination. Vaccinology Symposium, Prague, October 10th, 2006.

 

Cupillard L, Juillard V, Latour S, Colombet G, Cachet N, Richard S, Blanchard S, Fischer L (2005). Impact of plasmid supercoiling on the efficacy of a rabies DNA vaccine to protect cats. Vaccine 23: 1910-1916.

 

Day MJ, Schoon HA, Magnol JP, Saik J, Devauchelle P, Truyen U, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Cozette V, Jas D, Poulet H, Pollmeier M, Thibault JC (2007). A kinetic study of histopathological changes in the subcutis of cats injected with non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted multi-component vaccines. Vaccine 25: 4073-4084.

 

Deem SL, Davis R, Pacheco LF (2004). Serologic evidence of nonfatal rabies exposure in a free-ranging Oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) in Cotapata National Park, Bolivia. J Wildlife Dis 40: 811-815.

 

Dubielzig RR, Hawkins KL, Miller PE (1993). Myofibroblastic sarcoma originating at the site of rabies vaccination in a cat. J Vet Diagn Invest 5: 637-638.

 

East ML, Hofer H, Cox JH, Wulle U, Wiik H, Pitra C: Regular exposure to rabies virus and lack of symptomatic disease in Serengeti spotted hyenas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001, 98(26):15026-15031.

 

Etessami R, Conzelmann KK, Fadai-Ghotbi B, Natelson B, Tsiang H, Ceccaldi PE (2000). Spread and pathogenic characteristics of a G-deficient rabies virus recombinant: An in vitro and in vivo study. J Gen Virol 81: 2147-2153.

 

Fekadu M (1991). Latency and aborted rabies. In The natural history of rabies, Ed Baer GM, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 191-198.

 

Fogelman V, Fischman HR, Horman JT, Grigor JK (1993). Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of rabies in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 202: 1829-1838.

 

Fooks AR, McElhinney LM, Marston DA, Selden D, Jolliffe TA, Wakeley PR, Johnson N, Brookes SM (2004). Identification of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 in a Daubenton’s bat found in Staines, Surrey, UK. Vet Rec 155: 434-435.

 

Franchini M (1990). Die Tollwutimpfung von mit felinem Leukämivirus infizierten Katzen. Vet.Diss. Zürich Univ.

 

Fu ZF (1997). Rabies and rabies research: past, present and future. Vaccine, 15 (Suppl): 20-24.

 

Gerhold RW, Jessup DA (2013). Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats. Zoonoses Public Health 60: 189-195. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01522.x.

 

Green SL (1997). Rabies. Vet Clin North Am: Equine Pract 13: 1-11.

 

Greene CE, Rupprecht CE (2006). Rabies and other Lyssavirus infections. In Greene CE Ed Infectious diseases of the dog and cat. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis, Missouri, 167-183.

 

Hanlon CA, Kuzmin IV, Blanton JD, Weldon WC, Manangan JS, Rupprecht CE (2005). Efficacy of rabies biologics against new lyssaviruses from Eurasia. Virus Res 111: 44–54.

 

Hooper DC (2005). The role of immune responses in the pathogenesis of rabies. J Neurovirol 11: 88-92.

 

Hooper DC, Morimoto K, Bette M, Weihe E, Koprowski H, Dietzschold B (1998). Collaboration of antibody and inflammation in clearance of rabies virus from the central nervous system. J Virol 72: 3711-3719.

 

Jackson AC (2002). Pathogenesis. In Rabies. Eds Jackson AC, Wunner WH. Academic Press, San Diego, 245-282.

 

Johnson N, McKimmie CS, Mansfield KL, Wakeley PR, Brookes SM, Fazakerley JK, Fooks AR (2006). Lyssavirus infection activates interferon gene expression in the brain. J Gen Virol 87: 2663-2667.

 

Johnson N, Selden D, Parsons G, Healy D, Brookes SM, McElhinney LM, Hutson AM, Fooks AR (2003). Isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton’s bat in the United Kingdom Vet Rec 152, 383-387.

 

Lafon M (2002). Immunology. In Rabies, Eds Jackson AC, Wunner WH, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 351-371.

 

Lakshmanan N, Gore TC, Duncan KL, Coyne MJ, Lum MA, Sterner FJ (2006). Three-year rabies duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination with a core combination vaccine against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and rabies virus. Vet Therapeutics 7: 223-231.

 

Marcovistz R, Hovanessian AG, Tsiang H (1984). Distribution of rabies virus, interferon and interferon-mediated enzymes in the brain of virus-infected rats. J Gen Virol 65: 995-997.

 

Marcovistz R, Leal EC, Matos DC, Tsiang H (1994). Interferon production and immune response induction in apathogenic rabies virus-infected mice. Acta Virol 38: 193-197.

 

Minke JM, Bouvet J, Cliquet F, Wasniewski M, Guio AL, Lemaitre L, Cariou C, Cozette V, Vergne L, Guigal PM (2009). Comparison of antibody responses after vaccination with two inactivated rabies vaccines. Vet Microbiol 133: 283-286.

 

Murphy FA, Bell JF, Bauer SP, Gardner JJ, Moore GJ, Harrison AR, Coe JE (1980). Experimental chronic rabies in the cat. Lab Invest 43: 231-241.

 

Murphy FA, Harrison AK, Win WC, Bauer SP (1973). Comparative pathogenesis of rabies and rabies-like viruses: infection of the central nervous system and centrifugal spread of virus to peripheral tissues. Lab Invest 29: 1-16.

 

Nara PL, Krakowka S, Powers TE (1979). Effects of prednisolone on the development of immune responses to canine distemper virus in beagle pups. Am J Vet Res 40:1742-1747.

 

O’Brien DP, Axlund TW (2005). Brain disease. In Ettinger Eds SJ and Feldman EC, Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Diseases of the dog and cat. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis, Missouri, 803-835.

 

OIE (2011). Rabies. In Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. Chapter 2. http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.01.13_RABIES.pdf

 

Osorio JE, Tomlinson CC, Frank RS, Haanes EJ, Rushlow K, Haynes JR, Stinchcomb DT (1999). Immunization of dogs and cats with a DNA vaccine against rabies virus. Vaccine 17: 1109-1116.

 

Paoletti E (1996). Applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 11349-11353.

 

Pastoret PP, Brochier B, Gaskell RM (2004). Rabies virus infection. In Feline medicine and therapeutics Eds Chandler EA, Gaskell CJ, Gaskell RM, Blackwell Publishing, 637-650.

 

Perez O, Paolazzi CC (1997). Production methods for rabies vaccine. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 18: 340-347.

 

Rupprecht CE, Childs JE (1996). Feline rabies. Feline Pract 24: 15-19.

 

Schneider LG (1995). Rabies virus vaccines. Dev Biol Stand 84: 49-54.

 

Servat A, Feyssaguet M, Morize JL, Schereffer JL, Boue F, Cliquet F (2007). A quantitative indirect ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of rabies vaccination in domestic and wild carnivores. J Immunol Methods 318: 1-10.

 

Servat A, Wasniewski M, Cliquet F (2006). Tools for rabies serology to monitor the effectiveness of rabies vaccination in domestic and wild carnivores (Review). Dev Biol (Basel) 125: 91-94.

 

Steck F, Wandeler A, Nydegger B, Manigley C, Weiss M (1980). Rabies in Switzerland 1967-1978. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 122: 605-636.

 

Swanepoel R, Barnard BJ, Meredith CD, Bishop GC, Bruckner GK, Foggin CM, Hubschle OJ: Rabies in southern Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 1993, 60(4):325-346.

 

Tepsumethanon V, Lumlertdacha B, Mitmoonpitak C, Wilde H (2003). Clinical diagnosis for rabies in live dogs. Proceedings of 28th World Congress of WSAVA, October 24-27, 2003 – Bangkok, Thailand.

 

Tepsumethanon V, Lumlertdacha B, Mitmoonpitak C, Sitprija V, Meslin FX, Wilde H (2004). Survival of naturally infected rabid dogs and cats. Clin Infect Dis 39: 278-280.

 

Tjørnehøj K, Rønsholt L, Fooks AR (2004). Antibodies to EBLV-1 in a domestic cat in Denmark. Vet Rec 155: 571-572.

 

Van de Zande S, Kaashoek M, Hesselink W, Sutton D, Nell T (2009). Comments to “Comparison of antibody responses after vaccination with two inactivated rabies vaccines” [Minke, J.M., et al., 2009. Vet. Microbiol. 133, 283–286]. Vet Microbiol 138: 202–203.

 

Vos A, Schaarschmidt U, Muluneh A, Muller T (2003). Origin of maternally transferred antibodies against rabies in foxes. Vet Rec 153: 16-18.

 

Woods M, McDonald RA, Harris S (2003). Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain. Mammal Rev 33: 174-188.

 

World Health Organisation (WHO). http://www.who.int/rabies/epidemiology/en/

 

Wunner WH, Dietzschold B, Curtis PJ, Wiktor TJ (1983). Rabies sub-unit vaccines. J Gen Virol 64: 1649-1656.

 

 

Xiang ZQ, Yang Y, Wilson JM, Ertl HC (1996). A replication-defective human adenovirus recombinant serves as a highly efficacious vaccine carrier. Virology 219: 220-227.

 

Zanoni RG, Bugnon Ph, Deranleau E, Nguyen TMV, Brügger D (2010). Walking the dog and moving the cat: Rabies serology in the context of international pet travel schemes. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 152: 561-568.

Back to Top